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دراسة الإضافات المانعة للأكسدة والتآكل

دراسة الإضافات المانعة للأكسدة و التآكل لزيوت التزليق
الزيوت النفطية هي عبارة عن مزيج معقد من الهيدروكربونات يحتوي ( 20-60 ) ذرة كربون وزنها الجزيئي ( 300-750 ) و درجة غليانها من ( 300-650C° ).

اللغة: 

فاعلية المنحى المبرمج كاستراتيجية لحل المشكلات في تحصيل طلاب الصف الثاني المتوسط في مادة الكيمياء وتفكيرهم العلمي

مُلخص البحث

Title in English: 
Effectiveness of the programmed Oriented as Strategy to Problem Solving in achievement of second intermediate grade in Chemistry and their Scientific thinking
Abstract in English: 
Abstract The method of teaching is considered as an important factor of the curriculum, it is the link between students and educational content, and it is the effective element in arrangement educational process, as well as it is the effective step to continue the continued renaissance of scientific and technological and stir students thinking to have the ability to solve problems of educational and life, then to improve their level of academic achievement in general and chemistry in particular, and because of that importance has emerged as a result of studies and research, educational and psychological variety of teaching methods suited to the learning environment, the new methods aims to improve the style of scientific thoughts by students and their self participating of learning to fit with the targets of modern education, it is the interest with all sided of educated personality. And because of the importance of Chemistry subject in all practical sides of life and to prepare students scientifically, intellectually and educationally, and because it is theoretical and practical material at the same time, so the study of Chemistry and educated it need to educating methods able to induce the students to follow the scientific method in solving scientific and life problems as a way to train students in treating problems they face and living in a scientific and arrangement manner. From here the programmed oriented as strategy as problem solving, which is characterized by its six steps, the selection of researcher to achieve its research aims., so research aims to build a educational plan represented by strategic steps of oriented program for raising the level of students achievement and their scientific thinking, the current problem of research summarized by the following: " Is their effectiveness for programmed Oriented as Strategy to Problem Solving in achievement of second intermediate grade in Chemistry and their Scientific thinking" Based on what mentioned above the research has the following two goals: 1- Effectiveness of programmed Oriented as Strategy to Problem Solving in the achievement of second intermediate -graders average in chemistry 2- Effectiveness of programmed Oriented as Strategy to Problem Solving into scientific thinking for students of the second intermediate grade in chemistry. To achieve these two goals, researcher put the two following thesis: -There is no difference statistically significant at the level of significance (0.05) between the average scores of the experimental group students taught according to the strategy- oriented programmer, and the average score for the control group students taught according to the traditional way in achievement test. - There is no difference statistically significant at the level of significance (0.05) between the average scores of the experimental group students taught according to the strategy-oriented programmer, and the average score for the control group students taught according to the traditional way of scientific thinking. -The research experience in second –term in Sunday (21/2/2010) and ended in Thursday (29/4/2010) on the second intermediate -grades in Omer bin Abdul Aziz Intermediate school, chosen by the researcher is intently , as the sample consists of two sections of the second graders average (c,a). selected randomly and chosen from the sides of (calculated age of time , IQ Raven, the degree of test half of the year in chemistry, test the previous information in chemistry, and the degree of scientific thinking test). The experimental group represented(32) students studied according to the strategy-oriented programmer, and a control group consisting of (31) students studied in the usual way. Experience applied in the second part of academic year (2009-2010), scientific material was identified by the (fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth) from the book of chemistry for the second intermediate grade lesson plans were prepared for the two groups of research (experimental and control) and number (20) a teaching plan for each of the two groups of search, the researcher taught by himself the two groups of research, at the end of studying year, the research made two tests for the two groups represented by: 1- Achievement test prepared by the researcher to measure student achievement in chemistry after it has been verified reality and steadfastness and find Al –sychometer characteristics of its items, it is applied on two groups of research on Sunday 02/05/2010 2- Scientific thinking test adopted by the researcher and designed by (Zahawi, 2001), for the purpose of measuring the scientific thinking for students of the two groups of research, having been verified by reality and steadfastness and find properties Al –sychometer characteristics of its items, it is applied on two groups of research Monday,( 05/03/2010). The used calculation of statistical methods in the search was made manually and automatically by the statistical program SPSS. Included statistical The statistical methods calculation includes mean average, standard deviation, the t-test for two independent unequal groups, Cord- Richardon -20 equation, equations of equivalents discriminate, and the difficulty factors and effectiveness of alternatives the wrong test items. The results of research showed that the excel of experimental group students than on students of control group retest achievement in difference statistically significant at the level of significance( 0.05). as well as the excel of experimental group on control group in test of scientific thought in statistical significance at the (0.05). Thus researcher conclude that there was a positive effect for the use of programmed Oriented as Strategy to Problem Solving in achievement and scientific thinking in chemistry subject. According at these results, the researcher submits some of the recommendations to take in consideration the programmer-oriented strategy to Problem Solving in the teaching of science subjects for different stages of learning and interest in scientific thinking in the curricula of science is to take advantage in their daily lives. As a complement of the current research, the researcher suggests further studies dealt with the application programmed Oriented as Strategy to Problem Solving on the other stages of the study in chemistry especially and other general science generally, besides, made comparative study between programmed Oriented as Strategy to Problem Solving and other learning methods and styles of study.
المؤلفون: 
اللغة: 

مشاكل استخدام الكلور الفعّال في تطهير مياه الصرف الصحي وإمكانية استخدام كلوريد البروم كوسيلة تطهير بديلة

تطهير المياه هي عملية القضاء على الأحياء الدقيقة الممرضة وغيرها من المتعضيات التي يمكن أن تجعل المياه غير صالحة للاستخدام لأغراض الشرب ولبعض الاحتياجات الاقتصادية الأخرى.

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