The Affectivity of Meta – Cognitive Strategies (Modeling and Reciprocal Teaching) on the Achievement and Experimental Performance for the Experimental Geometrical Optics and TheirMotivation to Learn the Topic
Abstract in English:
The Affectivity of Meta – Cognitive Strategies (Modeling and Reciprocal Teaching) on the Achievement and
Experimental Performance for the Experimental Geometrical
Optics and TheirMotivation to Learn the Topic
Prof. Dr. Majeda Ibrahem Al-Baouy &Dr.Huda Kareem Husein Al-Kafaji
The present work aims at knowing the effect of meta-cognitive strategies on the achievement and experimental performance for the students in the geometrical optics and their motivation to learn this topic. In order to achieve the work aim, the following two null hypotheses has been formulated:
1) There is no difference of a statistical indication at level (0.05) between the average of the student's achievement degrees in the experimental geometrical optics for the three research groups.
2) There is no difference of a statistical indication at level (0.05) between the average of the student's degrees in the experimental performance of the geometrical optics for the three research groups.
3) There is no difference of a statistical indication at level (0.05) between the average of the student's degrees in the motivation scale for learning experimental geometrical optics for the three research groups.
The satisfaction of truthiness of these hypotheses has been carried out by making an experiment, its period extended along one complete semester namely the first term. The research population consist of the second stage students at the Physics department of Education college in Al-Mustansiriyah university for academic year 2010-2011. Research sample has been chosen randomly, where its total number being (45) student distributed over three groups. The equivalence between the research groups has ensure through the variables: age in month, previous information, learning motivation and intelligence.
The researcher, by herself, has been perpetrated the experimental requirements, which are scientific topic determination, behavior purposes, teaching planes, experiments guide, teacher guide in accordance to meta-cognitive strategies modeling and reciprocal teaching.
As long as research tools is concerned, three tools is prepared namely a test for achievement (since there are no suitable ones for research purposes), observation form and scale for motivation to learn the topic under consideration. Concerning with the scientific achievement test, a 25 objective testing items are formulated of multiple choice sort since it have a high degree of reliability, don’t affected by corrector personality, provide well cover to the study topic and determine, with a high degree, the aimed learn products. However, to ensure the validity of the test it is presented for several referees in education and teaching methods disciplines so as to formulated its items scientifically and technically. Also, the validity, reliability, distinguish coefficient, complexity coefficient and exchange activity for the test has been computed.
Furthermore, researcher has prepared the evaluation tool for the final experimental performance (observation form), where the analytical method is dependent to evaluate the final experimental performance. It consist of conversion of any performance activity into steps, specified and sequential behavior actions set up as descriptive on data-description report scale have five dimension to aid for level determination of student performance. Then, the content truth is ensure by means of presenting observation form together with topic content on several expert and disciplines referees in physics and physics teaching methods departments. In order to reinforce the objectivity and reliability of the form, researcher has determine the reliability coefficient for the observation form by using Berson’s correlated coefficient equation.
Additionally, the motivation scale toward geometrical optics topic learning is prepared, where it consist of (35) items, its apparent truthiness has been ensure by presenting it for experts. The distinguish force and reconstruction truth are obtained, after training the scale on two training samples, by finding internal consistency between the degree of each item and hence the test reliability is checked using α-reliability coefficient.
When students finished the study and practice of all of the excitements, the research groups are examined by achievement, experimental performance and motivation scale tests. When the data being analyzed using singular variance analyses (to reveals deference) and T-method (for reveal deference direction and the group of influence) it is clearly shows deference of statistical inductions. Accordingly it is clear that the superiority of first training group that thought the topic according to meta-cognitive strategy (modeling) in performance and learning motivation over the remaining two groups. The meta-cognitive strategies (modeling and reciprocal teaching) are gives equal results concerning achievement and both of them being superior over the third group. Furthermore the group thought by reciprocal teaching found to be superior over the adjusted group concerning achievement, experimental performance and learning motivation. So the null hypotheses are rejected.
The most important conclusion the researcher achieved from this investigation is that, the using of the meta-cognitive strategies (modeling and reciprocal teaching) were effective to raise the level of studying achievement, experimental performance and learning motivation for the student under consideration. Actually, this in consistence with our study terms in all of the education stages, also the model and byword form a main basic to the learner in classroom rather than exchange teaching strategy. According to the results of this work several recommendations and suggestions were formulated.