Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: The witness of great history - See 104 traveler reviews, 452 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. [40] For background see Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast. A prison. The Shirvanshahs integrated the city so closely with their political structure that a new branch of the Shirvan dynasty emerged from Derbend, the Derbenid dynasty. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, and is traditionally identified with Albana, the capital. A traditionally and historically Iranian city,[21] the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC; the site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Furthermore, Ibrahim also greatly increased the limits of his state. They transformed it into an important administrative center and introduced Islam to the area. This settlement initially covered only the more protected northeastern side of the hill (some 4–5 hectares), but over the 6th–4th centuries BCE expanded to cover its entire surface (c. 15 hectares). About two kilometers (1.2 miles) from the city is the vacation colony of Chayka (Seagull). The Derbenid dynasty, being a cadet dynasty of Shirvan, inherited the throne of Shirvan in the 15th century. [1] Archaeological evidence points to the establishment of a fortified settlement on the Derbent hill as early as the late 8th century BCE, probably under the impact of Scythian raids. In 1747, Derbent became the capital of the Derbent Khanate of the same name. The room is large with equipped with new furniture. ... Derbent. Derbent is derived from Persian "Darband" (Persian: دربند‎, lit. Nadir Shah of Persia forced many Jews to adopt Islam. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World. That's according to the city's acting mayor Rustambek Pirmagomedov, who has pointed the finger at the federal government for neglecting Derbent's fortifications, in what he called a "big emergency for the city.". At the beginning of our era, part of the present Dagestan was in Caucasian … [15], "-Wėrōy-pahr: "The Gruzinian Guard" The old name of the fortress at Darband;..."[16], In Arabic texts the city was known as "Bāb al-Abwāb" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْأَبْوَاب‎, lit. The fortress in Derbent guarded the Caspian Gates -- the only way through the wall. After the Timurud invasion, Ibrahim I of Shirvan, the 33rd Shirvanshah, managed to keep the kingdom of Shirvan independent. Out of the window next to the reception desk (3rd floor) you have a great view of the castle. [1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Derbent—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. Derbent is the southern-most city in Russia, and over 1,500km south of Moscow. In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Arab Caliphate, Derbent became the capital of an emirate. [14] In the 5th century Derbent also functioned as a border fortress and the seat of a Sassanid marzban. Derbent is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea Derbent city view from above. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Derbent serves as the administrative center of Derbentsky District, even though it is not a part of it. The first mention of Jews in Derbent in modern times is by a German traveler, Adam Olearius, in the 17th century. The walls of that settlement were some 2 metres (6.6 ft) high and maximally 7 metres (23 ft) thick, with evidence of repeated destruction and rebuilding throughout the period. Крепость Нарын-кала. In the early 16th century the kingdom of Shirvan was conquered by Shah Ismail of the Safavid dynasty. The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. [14] Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. They killed 1 person and injured 12. Hotels near Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala; Hotels near Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent; Hotels near Derbent Dzhuma-Mosque History of Derbent and the millennia old historical and cultural relations it has with Iran. 'Gate of Gates')[17] simply as "al-Bāb" (Arabic: ٱلْبَاب‎, lit. 'Gate of Iron'). 'Barred gate', from dar “gate” + band “bar,” lit., “barred gate”[13]), referring to the adjacent pass. Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary” in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. Закон №16 от 10 апреля 2002 г. AC worked well. It is clear that the most important thing in Derbent is the fortress, well preserved, although rebuilt many times. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). [45] The Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela mentions Jews living in Derbent in the 12th century, and Christian traveler Wilhelm of Rubruquis writes about a Jewish community in the 13th century. Excavations on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, opposite to Derbent, revealed the Great Wall of Gorgan, the eastern counterpart to the wall and fortifications of Derbent. Derbent - the oldest Djuma-mosque in North Caucasus. Derbent experienced a period of considerable prosperity in the first three centuries of the Common Era, but the resumption of nomad raids in the 4th century (the Alans and later the Huns) meant that it quickly reverted to its role as a frontier post and a "symbolic boundary between nomadic and agrarian ways of life". The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. The rulers of Shirvan, called the Shirvanshahs, had attempted, and on numerous times, succeeded, to conquer Derbend since the 18th Shirvanshah king, Afridun I, was appointed as the governor of the city. ), In the 1886 population counting of the Dagestan Oblast of Russia's Caucasus Viceroyalty, of the 15,265 inhabitants Derbent had, 8,994 (58,9%) were of Iranian descent (Russian: персы) thus comprising an absolute majority in the town.[41]. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. To the south lies the seaward extremity of the Caucasian wall (fifty metres long), otherwise known as Alexander's Wall, blocking the narrow pass of the Iron Gate or Caspian Gates (Portae Athanae or Portae Caspiae). The Shirvanshahs dynasty existed as independent or a vassal state, from 861 until 1538; longer than any other dynasty in the Islamic world. padxwadayīh [ī] yazdgird ī šabuhrān kard andar tāzišn ī čōl wērōy-pahr [ī] an ālag. This is an incredible site over 15 centuries old, set right btw the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mtns. Derbent Travel Guide; All Derbent Hotels; Derbent Hotel Deals; Last Minute Hotels in Derbent; By Hotel Type. Nice restaurant facilities nearby as well. There are also various Middle Persian (Pahlavi) inscriptions on the walls of the fortress and Northern/Southern walls inside the city. Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. (The city of Kūmīs of five towers Aži Dahag made it his own harem. The educational infrastructure includes a university as well as several technical schools. [1] In the late 4th century CE, Albania passed under Sasanian influence and control; in the 5th century, it was a Sasanian border fortress and the seat of a march-warden (marzban).[1]. Historical attractions include the baths, the cisterns, the old cemeteries, the caravanserai, the 18th-century Khan's mausoleum, as well as several mosques. Being briefly taken by the Russians as a result of the Persian expedition of 1722–23 by Peter the Great, the 1735 Treaty of Ganja, formed by Imperial Russia and Safavid Iran (de facto ruled by Nader Shah), forced Russia to return Derbent and its bastion to Iran. Despite that, the emirate outlived its rival and continued to flourish at the time of the Mongol invasion in 1239. The region is named after the ancient Iranian-speaking tribes of the Massagetae people, who inhabited this region from around the 1st century AD to the 7th century AD. The immense wall, with a height of up to twenty meters and a thickness of about 10 feet (3 meters), stretched for forty kilometers between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains, thirty north-looking towers stretched for forty kilometers between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains, effectively blocking the passage across the Caucasus. Derbent stayed under Iranian rule, while occasionally briefly taken by the Ottoman Turks such as in 1583 after the Battle of Torches and the Treaty of Constantinople, till the course of the 19th century, when the Russians occupied the city and wider Iranian-ruled swaths of Dagestan.[32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. And a mosque again. The location is central (modern Cinema is next door - there is a "russian" KFC and burger restaurant). Derbent is located in Russia’s Dagestan region, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. The old Armenian Church, now used as a venue and Museum, Russian Orthodox Church of the Intercession, Putin visiting an exhibition dedicated to the 2000th anniversary of Derbent in the State Historical Museum, Почта России. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Дагестан», в ред. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №8, 15 февраля 2005 г. one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World, Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast, List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia, "База данных показателей муниципальных образований", "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. A large portion of the walls and several watchtowers still remain in reasonable shape. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан», в ред. Derbent wall‎ (10 F) Media in category "Derbent Fortress" The following 164 files are in this category, out of 164 total. It is often identified with the Gates of Alexander, a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus. Today, Derbent is an outstanding monument of defense architecture. [5], The main ethnic groups are (2002 Census):[43][44]. In the 1st century BCE, Derbent became incorporated in the kingdom of Caucasian Albania, probably as its northernmost possession. Russia. Media in category "Derbent wall" The following 10 files are in this category, out of 10 total. To the north of the town is the monument of the Kirk-lar, or forty heroes, who fell defending Dagestan against the Arabs in 728. Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Persian: دربند‎; Lezgian: Кьвевар, Цал; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Avar: Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend,[8] is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea. The first Sasanian attempt to seal off the road along the Caspian seacoast at Darband by means of a mud-brick wall has been dated in the reign of Yazdegerd II (438–457 AD).[14]. The Soviet novelist Yury Krymov named a fictional motor tanker after the city in his book The Tanker "Derbent". In the 14th century, Derbent was occupied by Timur's armies. Россия - panoramio (2).jpg 3,888 × 2,592; 3.45 MB. His successor,[citation needed] Böri Shad, proved unable to consolidate Tong Yabghu's conquests, and the city was retaken by the Persians, who held it as an integral domain until the Muslim Arab conquest. 'The Gate') or as "Bāb al-Hadid" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْحَدِيد‎, lit. Дагестан. The wall of Darial Pass which is between Gorgia and southern Russia in the Caucasus mountain range. [24] Some say that the level of the Caspian was formerly higher and that the lowering of the water level opened an invasion route that had to be fortified. [26] This account seems to be corroborated by the Spanish Arab Ḥamīd Moḥammad Ḡarnāṭī, who reported in 1130 that Derbent was populated by many ethnic groups, including a large Persian-speaking population.[28]. «О статусе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала", статусе и границах внутригородских районов в составе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала" и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». Maskut (also known as Mazkut, Muskur, Mazkat, Mashkut, or Maskat) is a historical region located along the western coast of the Caspian Sea, laying on today's republics of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia).. The walls, reaching to the sea, date from the 6th century, Sassanid dynasty period. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with … [25] The chronicler Movses Kaghankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea." Derbent is the oldest cultural center of Dagestan Republic, the birthplace of its spiritual and material culture, it is where art, art crafts, written language, values of Islam and other world religions spread from. Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and it is the southernmost Russian city, lying only 50 km (31 miles) from the border with Azerbaijan. View of Derbent city from the fortress wall (Dagestan, Russia The main attraction - the fortress complex of Derbent. [48] In 2016, the Jewish population was down to 1,345.[49]. [47] 564. Derbent is well served by public transport, with its own harbor, a railway going south to Baku, and the Baku to Rostov-on-Don road. As a consequence of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) and the resulting Treaty of Gulistan of 1813, Derbent and wider Dagestan were forcedly and irrevocably ceded by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire. When intact, the wall had a height of 9 m (29 ft) and a thickness of about 3 m (10 ft) and, with its iron gates and numerous watch-towers, defended Persia's frontier.[22]. Naryn-Kala fortress in Derbent [30][31] The Holy Saviour Armenian Church still rises up in the skyline, though it is used as the Museum of Carpet, Arts and Crafts today due to the decline in the Armenian population. [46] In 1989, there were 13,000 Jews in the city, but most emigrated after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Tradition also connects it to the Great Wall of … Canals of St Petersburg, Russia As visitors gaze upon the canals that criss-cross through the village of St Petersburg, many are unaware that they are witnessing paths carved in the name of trade and westernization. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. It owes its rich history to its strategic position, along the travel route between Europe and the Middle East, on the border of Europe and Asia, where the mountains of the Caucasus almost arrive at the coast leaving a narrow 3-km strip of plain. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. The Jewish population numbered 2,200 in 1897 (15% of total population) and 3,500 in 1903. Dagestan. māniš [ī] *pārsīgān ānōh būd. The name of the defensive complex Naryn-Kala (the citadel and the Derbent wall) means “narrow gate”. He conquered the city of Derbend in 1437. M. S. Saidov, ed., Katalog arabskikh rukopiseĭ Instituta IYaL Dagestanskogo filiala AN SSSR (Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the H.L.L. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №81, 12 апреля 2002 г. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Institute of the Dāḡestān branch of the A.N. Peter I conquered Derbent during the Persian campaign, but later it went to Persia again, and finally joined the Russian Empire only in 1813. Derbent resembles a huge museum and has magnificent mountains and shore nearby, and therefore possesses much touristic potential, further increased by UNESCO's classification of the citadel, ancient city and fortress as a World Heritage Site in 2003; however, instability in the region has halted development. Derbent Hostels; Derbent Beach Hotels; Derbent Family Hotels; Near Landmarks. According to Arab historians, Derbent, with population exceeding 50,000, was the largest city of the 9th century Caucasus. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid Empire. As Shah Ismail incorporated all the Shirvan possessions, he also inherited Derbend. In 2002, there were 2,000 Jews with an active synagogue and community center. Built in the 6th century during the reign of Persian emperor Khosrow I and maintained by various later Arab, Turkish and Persian regimes, the fortifications comprise three distinct elements: the citadel of Naryn-Kala at Derbent, the twi… In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs, who called it the Gate of Gates (Bab al-Abwab),[29] following their invasion of Persia. Закона №106 от 30 декабря 2013 г. Ibrahim I revived Shirvan's fortunes, and through his cunning politics managed to continue without paying tribute. Дербент. In the middle of the 20th century, Jews constituted about a third of the population of Derbent. Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian Steppe to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Over the centuries the city changed hands often. [1], From the 4th century BCE, the settlement began to expand beyond the hill fortress, which became a citadel to an expanding city. Derbent played an important role in the development of the Silk Roads; it was located on the Caspian trail, which was of strategic importance, connecting the Europe and Western Asia. Similar Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains. In the 19th century, the city passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813.[12]. It is also the southernmost city in Russia, and the second-most important city of Dagestan. Hardliner Islamic groups shot tourists in 2015. The impression of antiquity evoked by these fortifications led many Arab historians to connect them with Khosrow I and to include them among the seven wonders of the world. Derbent's star attraction is the sprawling hilltop Naryn-Kala Citadel complex, which boasts impressive, powerful stone towers and walls. The Derbent Fortifications is one the most popular tourist attractions in the city of Derbent and the Republic of Dagestan. The abode of the Parthians was there. After the Russian conquest, many Jews of rural Dagestan fled to Derbent, which became the spiritual center of the Mountain Jews. of the U.S.S.R.) I, Moscow, 1977. Its defense complex impresses us with its grandeur, mightiness and power. Other shrines include the 17th-century Kyrhlyar mosque, the Bala mosque and the 18th-century Chertebe mosque. A UNESCO World Heritage site in Dagestan partially collapsed after heavy rain. Derbent claims to be one of the oldest cities in the world and the southernmost one of the Russian Federation. I stayed at the Hotel Elit for one night in July 2015. [26] According to the account in the later "Darband-nāma", after construction of the fortifications Khosrow I “moved much folk here from Persia”,[27] relocating about 3,000 families from the interior of Persia in the city of Derbent and neighboring villages. It is the center of Russian brandy production. During the Persian Expedition of 1796, Derbent was stormed by Russian forces under General Valerian Zubov, but the Russians were forced to retreat due to internal political issues,[39] making it fall under Persian rule again. From a small early Bronze-age settlement to one of the biggest medieval cities of the Eastern Europe, the city of Derbent has a unique urban structure. The wall in Dagistan Russia also known as Derbent on the coast of the Caspian sea, it is a border fortress between two walls stretching from the mountains to the sea. The Caliph Harun al-Rashid lived in Derbent and brought it into great repute as a seat of the arts and commerce. Until the Russians conquered Derbent in the 1800s, the wall remained a crucial point in the city's military security. 05/05/2018 year.Tourists are photographed against the background of the city from the Naryn-Kala Wall of Naryn-Kala fortress and view of Derbent city. Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Lezgian: Кьвевар; Avar: Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border. This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. The oldest mosque is the Juma Mosque, built over a 6th-century Christian basilica; it has a 15th-century madrasa. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. As mentioned by the Encyclopedia Iranica, ancient Iranian language elements were absorbed into the everyday speech of the population of Dagestan and Derbent especially during the Sassanian era, and many remain current. Том 1", http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, https://web.archive.org/web/20180726010024/http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек", "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров", Derbent - Russia’s oldest city: 5,000 and counting, "Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: 5000 years of history - See 108 traveler reviews, 455 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. The current fortification and walls were built by the Persian Sassanian Empire as a defensive structure against hostile nomadic people in the north, and continuously repaired or improved by later Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms until the early course of the 19th century, as long as its military function lasted.
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