Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB; The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure.J Gen Intern Med. Jammu & Kashmir Police - In the service of the Nation since 1873 Handbook of Information under the Right to Information Act 2009 Chapter 6 The designation and other particulars of Public Information Officers and Appellate Authorities: Its purpose is to allow for very brief and accurate measurement of depression and anxiety. [6] The PHQ-9 can be used to diagnose Major Depressive Syndrome, but Major Depressive Disorder must be diagnosed using additional clinical information (e.g. 1. Description of Measure: The PHQ-9 and PHQ-2, components of the longer Patient Health Questionnaire, offer psychologists concise, self-administered tools for assessing depression. Patients who screen positive should be further evaluated with the PHQ-9 to determine whether they meet criteria for a depressive disorder. Two major dietary patterns identified by factor analysis were investigated for their associations with presence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) by using linear and multivariate logistic regressions. It is the 9-question depression scale from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). The PHQ-2, comprising the first 2 items of the PHQ-9, inquires about the degree to which an individual has experienced depressed mood and anhedonia over the past two weeks. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(11), 1596-1602. Its items are drawn from the first two items of the 'Generalized Anxiety Disorder–7 scale' (GAD–7) and the 'Patient Health Questionnaire-8' (PHQ-8). 2. COVID-19 Resource Center. [8], The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence endorsed the PHQ-9 for measuring depression severity and responsiveness to treatment in a primary care setting. A study involving two different patient populations produced Cronbach alphas of .86 and .89. A total score that is greater than 3 indicates that a clinician should administer the full GAD-7 and conduct a clinical interview to assess the presence and type of anxiety disorder. 2012 Sep;73(3):163-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.06.001. 2012; 73(3):163-168. Primary care providers frequently use the PHQ-9 to screen for depression in patients. We report the factor structure of the PHQ-9 in 55,555 women from the Mexican Teachers’ Cohort (MTC). According to DSM-5, Major Depressive Disorder is likely if 5 or more of the 9 symptoms are present for “most of the day, nearly every day" in the past 2 weeks and one of the symptoms is depressed mood or little interest or pleasure in doing things (questions 1 and 2 on the PHQ-9). Search, apply or sign up for job alerts at Volunteers of America Talent Network [2] Dr. Robert J. Spitzer, Dr. Janet B.W. On the other hand, individuals scoring low (≤ 4) on the PHQ-9 had a less than a 1 in 25 chance of having depression (Kroenke et al, 2001). The PHQ-9: A new depression and diagnostic severity measure. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. The test-retest reliability was assessed by the correlation between PHQ-9 scores obtained from in-person and phone interviews with the same patients. If there are poor responses to treatment, immediately refer the patient to a mental health specialist for counseling. [3], The PHQ-2 is a shortened version of the PHQ-9. The PHQ-8 may be a better option than the PHQ-9 in CAD patients. The symptoms must also cause significant distress and loss of function, and the symptoms must not be better explained by substance use or another medical or psychiatric condition. A study found that scores between the two tests are highly correlated (r=0.998). Higher scores on the PHQ-15 are strongly associated with functional impairment, disability and health care use. Questions are about the level of interest in doing things, feeling down or depressed, difficulty with sleeping, energy levels, eating habits, self-perception, ability to concentrate, speed of functioning and thoughts of suicide. Diagnostic Algorithms for the PHQ Page 1 Somatoform Disorder if at least 3 of #1a-m bother the patient ―a lot‖ and lack an adequate biological explanation. Major Depressive Syndrome if #2a or b and five or more of #2a-i are at least ―More than half the days‖ (count #2i if present at all) . Subjects were patients enrolled in the National Institute for Neurologic Disorders and Stroke-funded AIM (Activate, Initiate treatment, Monitor) PSD study. It is free to users and available in English and over 30 other languages. These questions were designed to help healthcare professionals identify signs or symptoms of depression. The absence of the ninth question has little effect on scoring between the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9. J Affect Disord. Responses range from “0” (Not at all) to “3” (nearly every day). Construct validity of the J-PHQ-9 as a measure of depression severity was assessed by examining functional status over various intervals using the SF-8 with the Kruskal-Wallis test. [3], The total sum of the responses suggests varying levels of depression. J Gen Intern Med. Internal consistency of the PHQ-9 has been shown to be high. Psychiatric Annals, 32, 509-521. J-PHQ-9 is suitable as a clinical tool of screening and monitoring for MDD in primary care in Japan. [10], The PHQ-15 is the 15-question scale from the PHQ that asks about 15 symptoms relating to somatoform disorders. Scores range from 0 to 27. The AIM study consists of a randomized clinical trial of case-management intervention versus usual care in depressed subjects, nested within a longitudinal cohort study that includes nondepressed subjects. Thank you for everything you do. PHQ-ADS change scores at 3 months differentiated (p < .0001) between individuals classified as worse, stable, or improved by a reference measure, providing preliminary evidence for sensitivity to change. The Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) is an ultra-brief screener for anxiety and depression, which combines the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2) . [3], A patient may take the PHQ-9 in written form or be asked the survey items by clinic staff. The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Epub 2016 Oct 3. This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 21:52. They incorporate DSM-IV depression criteria with other leading major depressive symptoms into a brief self-report instruments that are commonly used for screening and diagnosis, as well as selecting and monitoring treatment. In 93 patients diagnosed by the physician or MHP as suffering MDD the mean J … [10], National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, "The PHQ-9: A New Depression Diagnostic and Severity Measure", "Instructions for Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and GAD-7 Measures", "The PHQ-9: Validity of a Brief Depression Severity Measure", "The Patient Health Questionnaire Somatic, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptom Scales: A Systematic Review", "Utility and Limitations of PHQ-9 in a Clinic Specializing in Psychiatric Care", "Validation of the PHQ-9 as a Screening Instrument for Depression in Diabetes Patients in Specialized Outpatient Clinics", "Validity/Reliability of PHQ-9 and PHQ-2 Depression Scales Among Adults Living with HIV/AIDS in Western Kenya", "Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 & PHQ-2)", "Instructions for Patient Health Questionnaire and GAD-7 Measures", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=PHQ-9&oldid=994470857, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, PHQ-9; PHQ Quick Depression Assessment; Resident mood interview, Make treatment plan, consider counseling, follow-up, and/or prescription drugs, Prescribe prescription drugs and counseling. Primary care provid… The 'Patient Health Questionnaire-4' (PHQ-4) is a 4 item inventory rated on a 4 point Likert-type scale. Results from these interviews showed that individuals who scored high (≥ 10) on the PHQ-9 were between 7 to 13.6 times more likely to be diagnosed with depression by the mental health professional. It is usually used in research settings in non-depressive patients. Like the PHQ-9, scores range from 0 to 27 with scores of 5, 10, and 15 indicating mild, moderate, and severe anxiety. The PHQ-4 is a four questionnaire answered on a four point Likert-type scale. J Psychosom Res. [9] The PHQ-9 is available in over 30 languages[14] and it has been validated for use in different ethnicities. [7], Clinicians may also use the PHQ-9 to evaluate treatments given for depression. [8], In an assessment of construct validity, the correlation coefficient between the PHQ-9 and the SF-20 mental health scale was 0.73. Any degree of suicidal thoughts counts toward this criteria. 2001;16(9):606-613. Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives. The PHQ-9 versus the PHQ-8--is item 9 useful for assessing suicide risk in coronary artery disease patients? Structure of the Spanish version of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) has been inconclusive. Its purpose is not to establish final diagnosis or to monitor depression severity, but rather to screen for depression. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(9): 606-613. 10.1007/s11606-007-0333-y. existence of past manic/hypomanic episode, bereavement, other mental disorder, effects of a medication or illness). To assess criterion validity, a mental health professional validated depression diagnoses from PHQ-9 scores from 580 participants, resulting in 88% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The questions on the PHQ-15 account for 90% of all symptoms that providers observe in the primary care setting[10] Patients must rate how certain symptoms bothered them over the last month. The PHQ-9 (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) objectifies and assesses degree of depression severity via questionnaire. PATIENT HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE-9 (PHQ-9) Over the last 2 weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems? It has modules on mood (PHQ-9), anxiety, alcohol, eating, and somatoform disorders. The PHQ-8 as a measure of current depression in the general population. Badr, H., Federman, A. D., Wolf, M., Revenson, T. A., & Wisnivesky, J. P. (2016). The GAD-2 is a 2-question shortened version of the GAD-7 that uses the first two questions from the GAD-7. Reliability and tests found a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.89 among 3,000 primary care patients and 0.86 among 3,000 OB-GYN patients. The PHQ-2 has been validated in 3 studies in which it showed wide variability in sensitivity (Gilbody, Richards, Brealey, and Hweitt, 2007). A change of PHQ-9 score to less than 10 is considered a “partial response” to treatment and a change of PHQ-9 score to less than 5 is considered to be “remission.” [5], Kroenke, Spitzer, and Williams conducted validity and reliability tests on the PHQ-9 in 2001. Razykov I, Ziegelstein RC, Whooley MA, Thombs BD. The total of all 9 responses from the PHQ-9 aims to predict the presence and severity of depression. Though, you can also take it on your own. [10], The GAD-7 is a 7-question anxiety screening instrument developed in 2006. [15] Researchers generally use the PHQ-8 because timing and resource restraints may leave researchers unable to intervene with study participants that indicate suicidal thoughts. A one-factor model of the PHQ-9 was the solution with the best fit to the data, exhibiting strong factor loadings (0.71 to 0.90) and high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89). Modified with permission from the PHQ (Spitzer, Williams & Kroenke, 1999) by J. Johnson (Johnson, 2002) Title: Microsoft Word - PHQ-A.doc Author: cg014193 Created Date: PHQ-9 scores > 10 had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 88% for Major Depressive Disorder. Williams, Dr. Kurt Kroenke, and colleagues from Columbia University developed the PHQ in the mid 1990s and the PHQ-9 in 1999 with a grant from Pfizer. Eligible patients at 4 Indianapolis hospitals were screened for PSD be… Reliability and validity of the tool have indicated it has sound psychometric properties. [11] Studies have used the PHQ-9 to study patients with diabetes,[12] HIV-AIDS,[13] chronic pain, arthritis, fibromyalgia, epilepsy, and substance abuse. In general, a total of 10 or above is suggestive of the presence of depression. Nondepressed subjects were matched 1:1 by site of enrollment to depressed subjects. Aging & Mental Health, 21(9), 975-982, doi: 10.1080/13607863.2016.1186153, Gilbody, S., Richards, D., Brealey, S., & Hewitt, C. (2007). Description: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a self-administered version of the PRIME-MD tool for common mental health disorders administered by health care professionals. 2009; 114(1-3):163-73. Factor structure of the PHQ-9 was assessed by … It contains the first 2 questions of the PHQ-9 and takes less than a minute to administer. The Veterans Administration, Department of Defense, and Kaiser Permanente adopted the PHQ-9 as a standard measure for depression screening. Criteria validity was established by conducting 580 structured interviews by a mental health professional. Response items are summed (range 0-27) with higher scores indicating the respondent is experiencing more symptoms of depression. 2004;81:61-66. J Affect Disord. Factor structure of the PHQ-9 was assessed by … The PHQ is 59-question instrument. ... (PHQ-9) for screening depression. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(11), 1596-1602. The PHQ-9 (DEP-9 in some sources )is a 9-question instrument given to patients in a primary care setting to screen for the presence and severity of depression. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a new instrument for making criteria‐based diagnoses of depressive and other mental disorders commonly encountered in primary care. Unlike the PHQ-9, clinicians use the GAD-7 to assess the severity of anxiety only. Screening for depression in medical settings with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ): A diagnostic meta-analysis. It is the 9-question depression scale from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). View all Jobs at Volunteers of America. Depression in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their informal caregivers. Structure of the Spanish version of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) has been inconclusive. Responses range from "not at all" (a score of 0) to "bothered a lot" (a score of 2). The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) measures severity of depression symptoms. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a multiple-choice self-report inventory that is used as a screening and diagnostic tool for mental health disorders of depression, anxiety, alcohol, eating, and somatoform disorders. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a self-administered version of the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders diagnostic instrument for common mental disorders. “Other” depression is diagnosed if there is significant impairment and/or distress in major areas of functioning, but the full criteria for any specific depressive disorder are not met. 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