Results are consistent with critical depth hypothesis if mixing depth is considered. and Harding Jr., L.W. The magnitude, spatial extent and duration of a bloom depends o… stock) that typically occurs in the early spring and lasts until late spring or early summer? They found that during warm, wet years (as opposed to cool, dry years), the spatial extent of blooms was larger and was positioned more seaward. The mechanisms that trigger blooms have been studied for decades, but are still keenly debated, due in part to a lack of data on phytoplankton stocks in winter and early spring. [2] In addition, there is a lag in the grazing response of herbivorous zooplankton at the start of blooms, which minimize phytoplankton losses. Therefore, the greatest number of phytoplankton are found near the water’s surface. [2] For instance, diatom growth rate becomes limited when the supply of silicate is depleted. Published by Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2019.102202. For example, the stock size of a population that doubles once per day will increase 1000-fold in just 10 days. [1][2][13] Since silicate is not required by other phytoplankton, such as dinoflagellates, their growth rates continue to increase. stock) that typically occurs in the early spring and lasts until late spring or early summer. "Phytoplankton studies in lower Narragansett Bay". "Phytoplankton Patterns in Massachusetts Bay—1992–2007". The name comes from the Greek words φυτόν, meaning "plant", and πλαγκτός, meaning "wanderer" or "drifter". Phytoplankton population dynamics and the fate of production during the spring bloom in Auke Bay, Alaska 1 Edward A. We find that periods of convective mixing and high winds in winter and spring can substantially decrease (up to an order of magnitude) light-dependent mean specific growth rate for phytoplankton and prevent the development of rapid, high-magnitude blooms. Shifts in the dominant phytoplankton species are likely caused by biological and physical (i.e. Algal blooms occur when environmental conditions allow exponential growth of phytoplankton that create very dense clouds. (2009). Historically, blooms have been explained by Sverdrup's critical depth hypothesis, which says blooms are caused by shoaling of the mixed layer. However, with the exception of coastal waters, it can be argued, that iron (Fe) is the most limiting nutrient because it is required to fix nitrogen, but is only available in small quantities in the marine environment, coming from dust storms and leaching from rocks. environmental) factors. However, vertical mixing also causes high losses, as phytoplankton are carried below the euphotic zone (so their respiration exceeds primary production). Phytoplankton spring blooms often consist of large diatoms inedible for zooplankton, but the zoospores of their fungal parasites may serve as a food source for this higher trophic level. "Climate forcing of the spring bloom in Chesapeake Bay". Also, during these same years, biomass was higher and peak biomass occurred later in the spring. Harding, L. W. and Perry, E. S. (1997). Here, we investigated the impact of warming on the fungal infection of a natural phytoplankton spring bloom and followed the response of a zooplankton community. The spring bloom dominates the annual cycle of phytoplankton abundance in large regions of the world oceans. During winter, wind-driven turbulence and cooling water temperatures break down the stratified water column formed during the summer. Understanding environmental effects on spring bloom dynamics is important for predicting future climate responses and for managing aquatic systems. "Biological Oceanography" Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Winder, M. and Cloern, J.E. Now there is a growing body of evidence that suggests under-ice blooms (UIBs) of phytoplankton, like a sudden spring flowering in a garden, can occur in …
2020 phytoplankton spring bloom