In 1949, a deep water survey reported anomalously hot brines in the central portion of the Red Sea. Sometime during the Tertiary period, the Bab el Mandeb closed and the Red Sea evaporated to an empty hot dry salt-floored sink. The Red Sea has a surface area of roughly 438,000 km2 (169,100 mi2),[1][2] is about 2250 km (1398 mi) long, and — at its widest point — 355 km (220.6 mi) wide. The sea is the habitat of over 1,000 invertebrate species and 200 types of soft and hard coral. In 1798, France charged Napoleon Bonaparte with invading Egypt and capturing the Red Sea. The Dead Sea (Hebrew: יָם הַמֶּלַח ‎ Yam ha-Melah lit. These physical factors reduce the effect of high salinity caused by evaporation and cold water in the north and relatively hot water in the south. Numerous research cruises have been conducted: The sea is known for its spectacular dive sites such as Ras Mohammed, SS ''Thistlegorm'' (shipwreck), Elphinstone, The Brothers and Rocky Island in Egypt, Dolphin Reef in Eilat, Israel and less known sites in Sudan such as Sanganeb, Abington, Angarosh and Shaab Rumi. [34] Indeed, by observing the strontium isotope composition of the Red Sea brines, it is easy to deduce how these salt waters found at the bottom of the Red Sea could have evolved in a similar way to Lake Asal, which ideally represents their compositional extreme. Its connection to the ocean is in the south, through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. 3.9 out of 5 stars 82 ratings. Used water drained back into the coastal zones may cause harm to the nearshore environment of the Red Sea. The rules and regulations governing this area protect local marine life, which has become a major draw for diving enthusiasts. [citation needed], The rainfall over the Red Sea and its coasts is extremely low, averaging 0.06 m (2.36 in) per year. Note: Bir Tawil disputed between Sudan and Egypt and calculated for both. Garlic pepper Grinder. However, south of Jeddah in the Shoiaba area, the water from the lagoon may cover the adjoining sabkhas as far as 3 km (2 mi) whereas, north of Jeddah in the Al-kharrar area the sabkhas are covered by a thin sheet of water as far as 2 km (1.2 mi). The net value of the latter predominates, resulting in an overall drift to the north end of the Red Sea. Always confirm the calibration of a refractometer before using it. This dense water moves toward the south and sinks below the less dense inflowing waters from the Red Sea. Real Salt ® brand sea salt on the other hand, is unrefined and full of natural minerals and flavor – the way salt was meant to be savored. Yet, despite the saltiness of the ocean, sea ice contains very little salt, about a tenth of the amount of salt that sea water has. After the Second World War, the Americans and Soviets exerted their influence while the volume of oil tanker traffic intensified. The Red Sea also has extensive shallow shelves, noted for their marine life and corals. This is due to several factors: 1) high rate of evaporation and very little precipitation, 2) a lack of significant rivers or streams draining into the sea, and 3) limited connection with the Indian Ocean (and its lower water salinity). in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. The main reasons for the better development of reef systems along the Red Sea is because of its greater depths and an efficient water circulation pattern. Oil seeps occur near the Farasan Islands, the Dahlak Archipelago, along the coast of Eritrea, and in the southeastern Red Sea along the coasts of Saudi Arabia and Yemen.[39]. [7] A theory favoured by some modern scholars is that the name red is referring to the direction south, just as the Black Sea's name may refer to north. Yet another theory favored by some modern scholars is that the name red is referring to the direction south, the same way the Black Sea's name may refer to north. loyana. As a result, regular salt provides approximately 2,300 mg of sodium per teaspoon (6.1 grams), while sea salt … Both involved long voyages down the Red Sea.[1]. Generally, the velocity of the tidal current is between 50-60 cm per second (20–23.6 in/sec) with a maximum of 1 m (3 ft) per sec. It is underlain by the Red Sea Rift, which is part of the Great Rift Valley. The Red Sea has some of the highest levels of salt. The earliest known exploration of the Red Sea was conducted by ancient Egyptians, as they attempted to establish commercial routes to Punt. Red sea salt contains biologically balanced, elevated levels of the foundation elements (calcium, magnesium, carbonates) necessary for sustainable, accelerated coral growth. Agatharchides collected information about the sea in the 2nd century BCE. In order to evaluate sensitivity of Red Sea corals to increase salinity levels, we conducted a long-term (29 days) in situ salinity tolerance transect study at an offshore seawater reverse osmosis discharge on the coral Fungia granulosa. Effects causing this would have been: A number of volcanic islands rise from the center of the sea. Red Sea's recipes for easy & successful Reef-Keeping, Our Reef Care Recipes offer easy-to-understand and simple-to-implement instructions for reef maintenance, tailored to each type of aquarium. There are at least 18 desalination plants along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia which discharge warm brine and treatment chemicals (chlorine and anti-scalants) that bleach and kill corals and cause diseases in the fish. During the summer, NW winds drive surface water south for about four months at a velocity of 15–20 cm/s (6–8 in/s), whereas in winter the flow is reversed resulting in the inflow of water from the Gulf of Aden into the Red Sea. The main reasons for the better development of reef systems along the Red Sea is because of its greater depths and an efficient water circulation pattern. During the Middle Ages, the Red Sea was an important part of the spice trade route. For other uses, see, Arm of the Indian Ocean between Asia and Africa, Robert Dinwiddie: Ocean_ The World's Last Wilderness Revealed. [24] The Red Sea water mass exchanges its water with the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean via the Gulf of Aden. However, the Six Day War culminated in the closure of the Suez Canal from 1967 to 1975. The prevailing north and northeast winds influence the movement of water in the coastal inlets to the adjacent sabkhas, especially during storms. We recommend using a salinity tester that is specifically designed for sea water, such as Red Sea’s salt-water refractometer. The salinity of the ocean varies from place to place, especially at the surface. The basis of this theory is that some Asiatic languages used colour words to refer to the cardinal directions. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. They cruised the Red Sea inside the Bab al-Mandab, as the first fleet from Europe in modern times to have sailed these waters. The Suez Canal was opened in November 1869. Two new islands were formed in 2011 and 2013 in the Zubair Archipelago, a small chain of islands owned by Yemen. A canal was built between the Nile and the northern end of the Red Sea at Suez. A final theory suggests that it was named so because it borders the Egyptian Desert which the ancient Egyptians called the Dashret or "red land"; therefore, it would have been the sea of the red land. Edom, meaning "ruddy complexion," is also an alternative Hebrew name for the red-faced biblical character Esau (brother of Jacob), and the nation descended from him, the Edomites, which in turn provides yet another possible origin for Red Sea. The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders (such as the blue hole at Dahab). Formulated for use with RO water, the unique Sodium Chloride harvested from the Red Sea Reef contains optimally balanced ratios between calcium, alkalinity, and magnesium. Patzer, W. C. (1974), Wind-induced reversal in the Red Sea circulation. [22] In 1513, trying to secure that channel to Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque laid siege to Aden[23] but was forced to retreat. The world's largest independent conservation organization, the World Wide Fund for Nature, has identified the Red Sea as a "Global 200" ecoregion. For much of the past year, NASA and Argentina’s Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE) have been making comprehensive observations of sea surface salinity from space. Parameters are based on dry salt mixed with RO water. Contact between Rome and China depended on the Red Sea, but the route was broken by the Aksumite Empire around the third century C.E.[2]. In terms of salinity, the Red Sea is greater than the world average, approximately 4 percent. Most are dormant. [32], The Red Sea was formed by the Arabian peninsula being split from the Horn of Africa by movement of the Red Sea Rift.
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