Criterion (iv): The Great Wall of Gorgan and contemporary defensive monuments in the Gorgan Plain are of great interest also in shedding light on the particular period of history when they were built and occupied (5th-7th centuries AD). The Great Wall of Gorgan is a Sasanian-era defense system located near modern Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall. The route of the Gorgan Wall and the associated canal had to follow a natural gradient, evidence for remarkable skills in hydraulic engineering by its creators. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a series of ancient defensive fortifications located near Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. Whilst much of the brick wall itself has been robbed, some sections survive to up to 1.50 m height, whilst in others only the bottom courses remain. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a Sasanian-era defense system located near modern Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. It is commonly known as “the Red Snake” because of the construction materials used, red colored bricks. The structure is yet another testament to Sassanian engineering capabilities. The combined area of the forts on the Gorgan Wall exceeds that of those on Hadrian’s Wall about threefold. One of the integral forts spaced along the wall. The Gorgan Wall and its associated ancient military monuments provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire. Thus, due to its interaction with upper mentioned civilizations and cultures and its strategic location, carries important contents from the past. Tentative World Heritage Site (The Great Wall of Gorgan, masterpiece of human creative genius, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design, unique to a cultural tradition, object illustrates significant stage in human history, traditional human settlement or land-use, 2017–) The Great Wall of Gorgan is one of the most elaborate defensive barriers ever erected and arguably the most sophisticated of its time (i.e. Appel gratuit 0800 94 80 12 Me connecter This includes but is not limited to Afghanistan , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan , Mongolia , Tajikistan , Tibet , Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan , Xinjiang and Central Asian portions of Iran , Pakistan and Russia , region-specific topics, and anything else related to Central Asia. Excavations in Fort 4 have demonstrated that the original mud-brick walls of these, probably two-storey-high, buildings survive to a height of more than three metres. It is also more than three times the length of the longest late Roman defensive wall. Thus, due to its interaction with civilizations and cultures and its strategic location, carries important contents from the past. This wall is known as ‘The Great Wall of Gorgan’ or ‘the Red Snake’. The canals, of course, as well as pits within the forts are still largely preserved, though canal banks have also has some damages. Thus, due to its interaction with civilizations and cultures and its strategic location, carries important contents from the past. It is the longest fort-lined ancient barrier between Central Europe and China, it is longer than Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall put together. Le mur relie cet espace maritime aux montagnes du nord-est de l'Iran. The Great Wall of Gorgan: The History of the Ancient Near East’s Longest Defensive Wall: Charles River Editors, Colin Fluxman, Charles River Editors: Amazon.fr: Livres In order to enable construction works, canals had to be dug along the course of the defensive barrier, to provide the water needed for brick production. your own Pins on Pinterest Retrouvez The Great Wall of Gorgan: The History of the Ancient Near East’s Longest Defensive Wall et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. UNESCO Centre du patrimoine mondial. Criterion (v): The Tammisheh Wall, and probably the Great Wall of Gorgan, extended into territory now submerged in the Caspian Sea, due to a rise of its water-level. The Great Wall of Gorgan, Golestan Province, in northern Iran was built from 420s AD to 530s AD; it is then occupied until the 7th century. The Great Wall of Gorgan is the longest fort-lined ancient barrier between Central Europe and China, it is longer than Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall put together. The Great Wall of Gorgan: The History of the Ancient Near East's Longest Defensive Wall: Charles River Editors: Amazon.sg: Books Achetez neuf ou d'occasion In terms of scale and sophistication, the Great Wall of Gorgan is unmatched anywhere in western Asia, Eastern Europe, Africa or America. Criterion (i): The Great Wall of Gorgan posed exceptional engineering challenges. Visitors still can appreciate here its position and how the Wall takes advantage of the natural topography; it normally occupies high ground, to facilitate surveillance and defence. It is commonly known as “the Red Snake” because of the construction materials used, red colored bricks. Navigation. Iran, 44, 2006, pp. The Sassanid military barriers and fortifications in the Gorgan Plain provide evidence how effective defence, or the lack of it, could contribute to security and prosperity of empires, to their fall or survival. Les noms des biens figurent dans la langue dans laquelle les États parties les ont soumis. While preservation varies from place to place and tends to be better in the east than in the west, the Wall is still recognisable as a distinct landscape feature for most of its course. The Sassanid military barriers and fortifications in the Gorgan Plain provide evidence how effective defence, or the lack of it, could contribute to security and prosperity of empires, to their fall or survival. The Gorgan Wall and its associated ancient military monuments provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire. Further evidence for a high level of organization of the Sassanian armed forces is provided by hinterland campaign bases, each of ca. Criterion (iii): The Great Wall of Gorgan  and its associated fortifications of the Late Sassanid era (5th-7th centuries) constitute the greatest cluster of military monuments known from anywhere within the Sassanid Empire. S'identifier ≡ In one of them, rectangular enclosures in neat double rows have been found, the remnants of a tent city, probably of a mobile field army. This defensive wall dates to the Sassanian period, and is believed to have been manned by Sassanian troops up to at least the first half of the 7th century AD. 37°04′13″N 54°04′36″E  /  37.070382°N 54.076552°E  / . The Great Wall of Gorgan was a Sassanian-era (224 to 651 CE) defense system located near modern Gorgan in the Golestan Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. The route of the Gorgan Wall and the associated canal had to follow a natural gradient, evidence for remarkable skills in hydraulic engineering by its creators. This required a supplier canal system of extraordinary scale and sophistication (see introduction), not to mention one brick kiln every 37-86 m, maybe 3,000-7,000 in total. Together with canals and associated settlement in the steppe north of the Gorgan Wall of an earlier period (c. 8th-5th centuries BC), they shed unique light on human interaction with the environment, the world’s largest inland Sea and the steppes of Eurasia. Criterion (ii):  The Great Wall of Gorgan, and the associated extensive military infrastructure in its hinterland, is of a larger scale than any known purpose-built military monument of earlier times in the Near East. They help to explain its geographic extent, from Mesopotamia to the west of the Indian Subcontinent, and how effective border defence contributed to the Empire’s prosperity in the interior and to its longevity. The sole responsibility for the content of each Tentative List lies with the State Party concerned. It is the longest fort-lined ancient barrier between Central Europe and China, it is longer than Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall put together. The forts were filled with barracks of standardized design, suggesting that the Sassanian army was well organized. The Great Wall of Gorgan is particularly well preserved in the hilly landscape in the east. The publication of the Tentative Lists does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever of the World Heritage Committee or of the World Heritage Centre or of the Secretariat of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries. United Nations, Post-Conflict and Post-Disaster Responses, Astronomy and World Heritage Thematic Initiative, Human Evolution: Adaptations, Dispersals and Social Developments (HEADS), Initiative on Heritage of Astronomy, Science and Technology, Initiative on Heritage of Religious Interest, Natural World Heritage in the Congo Basin, Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape, Reducing Disasters Risks at World Heritage Properties, World Heritage and Sustainable Development, World Heritage and Sustainable Tourism Programme, World Heritage Centre’s Natural Heritage Strategy, World Heritage Earthen Architecture Programme (WHEAP). While of lesser physical length than some of the ancient Chinese barriers, in terms of the scale of its forts and hinterland fortifications, it also rivals similar monuments in ancient China. The Great Wall of Gorgan, also called the “The Red Snake” or “Alexander’s Barrier” is the second-longest defensive wall (after the Great Wall of China), which ran for 121 miles from a narrowing between the Caspian Sea north of Gonbade Kavous (ancient Gorgan, or Jorjan in Arabic) and the Pishkamar mountains of north-eastern Iran. This decisive period of history saw the demise of the Western Roman Empire and the eventual emergence of the Caliphate, expanding at the expense of the Sassanid and Eastern Roman Empires. The Great Wall of Gorgan and its associated earthwork, forts, brick kilns and canals still survive in part on an impressive scale. While it is shorter than the "Limes" in Germany, two thirds of which are protected by a rampart rather than a wall, the Gorgan Wall forms a more formidable obstacle. Great Wall of Gorgan is part of WikiProject Central Asia, a project to improve all Central Asia-related articles. Log in; Skip to content. There was no stone or timber in the steppe; it is just made of bricks. 121-173. This was the time when the Persian Empire, under the Sassanian dynasty, was involved in a series of wars at its northern frontier, first against the Hephthalites or White Huns and later against the Turks. 40 ha size. The brick wall is lined by 38 forts, a canal, fed by a complex system of supplier canals, as well as a large number of brick kilns, in part preserved to the present day, not to mention fortresses and a large city in its hinterland. More Contacts Site Map Become a member Donate Now! While preservation varies from place to place and tends to be better in the east than in the west, the Wall is still recognisable as a distinct landscape feature for most of its course. It is over a thousand years earlier than the stone and brick-built Great Wall of China (i,ii,iii,iv,vi); its contemporary and earlier Chinese counterparts were essentially earthworks, even if, of course, of impressive sophistication too, in terms, for example, of boosting an advanced signalling system. Being at the mid-point between the Roman and Chinese barriers, the evolution of large-scale linear defensive systems cannot be understood without taking the Great Wall of Gorgan into account. The ancient defensive barriers in the Gorgan Plain testify to a period which saw an important stage in the history of region regarding knowledge and technology transfer which associated to the safety of the region along trade routes, as well as remarkable developments, in terms of regional-planning, landscape design and technology. Like the frontiers of the Roman Empire and the Great Wall of China it deserves World Heritage status. This wall together with its monumental ensembles and other architecturally associated spaces has presented a significant combination with defensive importance. The Great Wall of Gorgan is the longest fort-lined ancient barrier between Central Europe and China, it is longer than Hadrian’s Wall and the Antonine Wall put together. The Great Wall of Gorgan posed exceptional engineering challenges. In order to enable construction works, canals had to be dug along the course of the defensive barrier, to provide the water needed for brick production. The Great Wall of Gorgan and the Wall of Tammishe ». Il s'agit de l'une des nombreuses portes de la Caspienne situées à l'est d'une région connue pendant l'Antiquité sous le nom d'Hyrcania, sur la route reliant les steppes du nord au centre iranien. Both walls employed large fired bricks of similar shape and size, both are lined by an earth bank and ditch (supplied with water by canals) and by batteries of virtually identical brick kilns, both are protected by similar forts and both run from the Alborz Mountains to the Caspian Sea. Whether or not they were parts of a single barrier, the Gorgan and Tammisheh Walls and their associated forts certainly formed part of the same defensive system. It is also more than three times the length of the longest late Roman defensive wall built from scratch, the Anastasian Wall west of Constantinople. © UNESCO World Heritage Centre 1992-2020 Both walls employed large fired bricks of similar shape and size, both are lined by an earth bank and ditch (supplied with water by canals) and by batteries of virtually identical brick kilns, both are protected by similar forts and both run from the Alborz Mountains to the Caspian Sea. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a series of ancient defensive fortifications located near Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern part of the Caspian Sea. An international team of archaeologists has been at work on the snakelike monument and here they report on their findings. The Great Wall of Gorgan, the second biggest defensive wall in the world, was built in the Parthian and Sassanian periods. It is said to be the longest architectural work of ancient Iran, which was built in 90 years. Much better preserved are those elements of the defensive system built of soil or mud-brick. 40 ha size. The Great Wall of Gorgan stretches for almost 200 km and is lined by 38 forts. Great wall of Gorgan with the names of "Red wall" or "Red Snake" is one of the most obvious Iranian architectural monuments, the third long wall of the world after the Great Walls of China and Germany. Situated in the city of Gorgan, the capital of northern Golestan province, the defensive wall is about 200 km in length and it was built to prevent the invasion of the northern tribes. This wall is noted in the Historical documents as Eskandar Dam, Anushirwan Dam, Firouz Dam and Qezel Alan. The Great Wall of China is well known as the largest wall in Asia (or indeed the world). The Great Wall of Gorgan is a series of ancient defensive fortifications located near Gorgan in the Golestān Province of northeastern Iran, at the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. The ‘Red Snake’ in northern Iran, which owes its name to the red colour of its bricks, is at least 195km long. The Tentative Lists of States Parties are published by the World Heritage Centre at its website and/or in working documents in order to ensure transparency, access to information and to facilitate harmonization of Tentative Lists at regional and thematic levels. Criterion (ii):  The Great Wall of Gorgan, and the associated extensive military infrastructure in its hinterland, is of a larger scale than any known purpose-built military monument of earlier times in the Near East. The Sassanid military barriers and fortifications in the Gorgan Plain provide evidence how effective defence, or the lack of it, could contribute to security and prosperity of empires. It rivals or surpasses its grandest Roman counterparts in dimensions and complexity. The Gorgan Wall and its associated ancient military monuments provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire. The Great Wal l of Gorgan, also known as the ‘Red Snake’, is a defense system located in the northern Iranian province of Golestan. The Sassanid military barriers and fortifications in the Gorgan Plain provide evidence how effective defence, or the lack of it, could contribute to security and prosperity of empires. The Gorgan Wall and its associated ancient military monuments provide a unique testimony to the engineering skills and military organization of the Sassanian Empire. In the early 7th century the Empire even controlled Yemen and, briefly, the eastern Levant. The Great Wall of Gorgon is an incredible and sophisticated defensive construction located in north-eastern Iran; it has around 30 military forts, an aqueduct, and water channels that go along the route. The Great Wall of Gorgan is particularly well preserved in the hilly landscape in the east. Further evidence for a high level of organization of the Sassanian armed forces is provided by hinterland campaign bases, each of ca. 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Publications World Heritage Review Series Resource Manuals World Heritage wall map More publications ... Funding World Heritage Fund International Assistance. Publications Revue du Patrimoine mondial Séries Manuels de référence Carte murale Plus de publications ... Fonds Fonds du patrimoine mondial Assistance internationale, More Contacts Plan du site Devenir membre Donnez maintenant, © UNESCO Centre du patrimoine mondial 1992-2020 This required a supplier canal system of extraordinary scale and sophistication (see introduction), not to mention one brick kiln every 37-86 m, maybe 3,000-7,000 in total. The forts were filled with barracks of standardized design, suggesting that the Sassanian army was well organized. Excavations in Fort 4 have demonstrated that the original mud-brick walls of these, probably two-storey-high, buildings survive to a height of more than three metres. | Skip to navigation. the 5th or 6th century). This decisive period of history saw the demise of the Western Roman Empire and the eventual emergence of the Caliphate, expanding at the expense of the Sassanid and Eastern Roman Empires. The Great Wall of Gorgan is a monument of outstanding universal value. Under the Arsacid Empire, the Great Wall of Gorgan, a series of forts and outposts with the plains of Hyrcania, was constructed to aid in the defence of Hyrcania against raids undertaken by the neighbouring Dahae tribes. This is all the more remarkable as this Empire stretched from modern south-east Turkey to Pakistan and from modern Dagestan (Russia) into the Arabian Peninsula. Contact; Help; Personal tools. | Skip to navigation. It is over a thousand years earlier than the stone and brick-built Great Wall of China (i,ii,iii,iv,vi); its contemporary and earlier Chinese counterparts were essentially earthworks, even if, of course, of impressive sophistication too, in terms, for example, of boosting an advanced signalling system. 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