El sitio se conoce como Templo Mayor, debido a que en este lugar se encuentran los restos del que fue el edificio principal de la antigua ciudad de Tenochtitlan. Sólo los sacerdotes y las víctimas del sacrificio podían ascender por aquellas escalinatas y llegar a la cúspide del templo, desde donde se podía contemplar la ciudad-isla en todo su esplendor. [4], The Zócalo, or main plaza of Mexico City today, was developed to the southwest of this archeological site, which is located in the block between Seminario and Justo Sierra streets. El curioso templomanantial consagrado al culto de la diosa Chalchiuhtlicue, patrona del agua del ámbito terrestre; y el espacio dedicado a los festejos de Mixcóatl, el patrono de la cacería, donde se recreaba un parque con rocas y árboles, en los que se ataba a las víctimas cubiertas con pieles, semejando animales. [10][17], The sacred ballcourt and skull rack were located at the foot of the stairs of the twin temples, to mimic, like the stone disk, where Huitzilopochtli was said to have placed the goddess' severed head. Other ceremonial items include musical instruments, jewelry, and braziers for the burning of copal. Lo anterior quedó plenamente corroborado con las excavaciones que siguieron al hallazgo casual de la escultura de Coyolxauhqui y que hoy conocemos como Proyecto Templo Mayor. Unarmed and trapped within the walls of the Sacred Precinct, an estimated 8,000–10,000 Aztec nobles were killed. El propósito de esta popular práctica, a la que frecuentemente asistía el tla­toa­ni junto con la nobleza y en ocasiones el pueblo, consistía en ­recrear el movimiento del sol, simbolizado en la pelota, por el firmamento. Disfruta de la e-magazine de México Desconocido con acceso gratuito. Destaca también la etapa constructiva ejecutada durante el gobierno de Izcóatl, de la que se descubrieron, sobre la escalinata que conducía al adoratorio de Huitzilopochtli, varias esculturas de portaestandartes que, a manera de guerreros divinos, defendían el ascenso al templo de la suprema deidad. The two temples were approximately 60 meters (200 feet) in height, and each had large braziers where the sacred fires continuously burned. De acuerdo con los relatos de los conquistadores, la decoración de este templo consistía en la figura de una serpiente emplumada (el nombre de la deidad), cuyas fauces abiertas constituían el acceso mismo a su adoratorio. Nine of these were built in the 1930s, and four dated from the 19th century, and had preserved colonial elements. This stage is considered to have the richest of the architectural decorations as well as sculptures. Although many are of Mexica design, there are also abundant items from other peoples, brought in as tribute or through trade. Sabemos que la escultura de Huitzilopochtli se modelaba con semillas de amaranto, y que en su interior se colocaban unas bolsas que contenían jades, huesos y amuletos que le daban vida a la imagen. En la parte superior de las alfar­das se ubicaban los braceros, donde ininterrumpidamente debía permanecer encendido el fuego sagrado. See all 36 Museo del Templo Mayor tickets and tours on Tripadvisor El edificio consistía en un patio con dos cabezales y un pasillo central, cuya planta se asemejaba a la letra “I”. He states that the "principal center, or navel, where the horizontal and vertical planes intersect, that is, the point from which the heavenly or upper plane and the plane of the Underworld begin and the four directions of the universe originate, is the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. The entirety was probably placed in ceremonial boxes—tepetlacalli—as an offering to the gods. Archaeologist Eduardo Matos Moctezuma, in his essay "Symbolism of the Templo Mayor," posits that the orientation of the temple is indicative of the total vision that the Mexica had of the universe (cosmovision). All of these fulfilled a specific function within the offering, depending on the symbolism of each object. Games were played barefoot, and players used their hips to move a heavy ball to stone rings. In 1519, this was the last day of Tlacaxipehualiztli, that is, precisely the day of the feast of the month. La historia del Templo Mayor es la dualidad de la vida y la muerte, la de los dioses y mitos encabezados por Tláloc y Huitzilopochtli, cuya esencia aún emerge de las ruinas del antiguo centro ceremonial mexica. The idol of Huitzilopochtli was modeled from amaranth seeds held together with honey and human blood. La escasez de lluvia y el sacrificio de niños. [4], The push to fully excavate the site did not come until late in the 20th century. The last room is Room 8, which is dedicated to the archeology and history of the site. Recibe infomación sobre eventos, escapadas y los mejores lugares de México directo en tu correo. Its architectural style belongs to the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerica. The Temple's exact location was forgotten. Se trata, por un lado, del llamado Palacio de los Guerreros Águila, y por otro, de un conjunto aún no identificado que probablemente se trate del Palacio de los Guerreros Jaguar. Its exact location is on one side of what is now Donceles Street. These benches are composed of two panels. [14], After the fall of Tenochtitlan in 1521, the lands controlled by the Aztecs became part of the Spanish empire. Conoce su historia aquí. [7] This was based on the archeological work done at the end of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th. The Sacred Precinct of the Templo Mayor was surrounded by a wall called the "coatepantli" (serpent wall). A ello se debe que cada vez que querían agrandarlo, se construía un nuevo edificio sobre el anterior conservando las mismas características fundamentales, es decir, dos capillas en la cúspide y escalinata doble en la fachada principal. http://www.pulsoslp.com.mx Un recorrido por el pasado en el Templo Mayor del Distrito Federal. [10], Construction of the first Templo Mayor began sometime after 1325. To enter this main room, one had to pass through an entrance guarded by two large sculpted representations of these warriors. This figure was constructed annually and it was richly dressed and fitted with a mask of gold for his festival held during the Aztec month of Panquetzaliztli. The aztec Empire and the Role of Violence in civilization, Beacon Press, Boston, 1999 Conoce la historia del Templo Mayor y otras más Templo Mayor Uno de los lugares que se creía perdido desde los tiempos de la colonia, era precisamente el Templo Mayor, mejor conocido como el Huey Teocalli, un importante centro ceremonial mexica que es parte del corazón de la ciudad de México. Un lugar prominente en la sección central del Templo Mayor lo ocupaba el edificio consagrado al culto del dios del viento, Ehécatl-Quetzalcóatl, la ancestral deidad de carácter civilizador que con su propia sangre y con los huesos de las generaciones antiguas había creado a los hombres. Here are displayed the first finds associated with the temple, from the first tentative finds in the 19th century to the discovery of the huge stone disk of Coyolxauhqui, which initiated the Templo Mayor Project. A bowl of ceviche almost always arrives at the table with a few side garnishes, including canguil, tostados, and chifles.Canguil is popcorn and should be added a few pieces at a time as it soaks up the juicy ceviche and quickly turns soggy.Tostados are toasted corn kernels. This first temple is only known through historical records, because the high water table of the old lakebed prevents excavation. Room 3 demonstrates the economics of the Aztec empire in the form of tribute and trade, with examples of finished products and raw materials from many parts of Mesoamerica. The Templo Mayor was first constructed in the reign of Itzcoatl (r. 1427-1440 CE), improved upon by his successor Motecuhzoma I (r. 1440-1469 CE), and again enlarged during the reign of Ahuitzotl (r. 1486-1502 CE). [2] The Great Temple devoted to Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc, measuring approximately 100 by 80 m (328 by 262 ft) at its base, dominated the Sacred Precinct. A la entrada de los adoratorios del Templo Mayor había unas vigorosas esculturas de hombres en posición sedente, cuya misión era sostener los estandartes y las banderolas hechas de papel amate que evocaban el poder de los númenes patrones. It was at the time the largest and most important active ceremonial center. Para el tiempo de los mexicas, esta divinidad representaba al viento que atraía las lluvias y producía anualmente el ciclo de la agricultura, de ahí que la pirámide consagrada a su culto, conocida como la “casa del viento” y orientada hacia el este, tuviera una forma peculiar: su fachada era de planta cuadrangular, mientras que su parte posterior, de planta circular, servía para sustentar un templo de forma cilíndrica cubierto por un techo de paja a manera de un gran cono. By the 20th century, scholars had a good idea where to look for it. [5][7][11], The second temple was built during the reigns of Acamapichtli, Huitzilihuitl and Chimalpopoca between 1375 and 1427. A principios del siglo XVI el recinto sagrado abarcaba una gran extensión de aproximadamente 400 metros por lado. Para amalgamar las semillas de amaranto, éstas se mezclaban con miel y sangre humana. Esta sala esta principalmente dedicada a la guerra y a la expansión militar, en la quese ven piezas dedicadas a Tlaloc como a Huitzilopochtli, se ven también varios instrumentos musicales que acompañaban a los actos de guerra. Tlaloc. First of all, it is aligned with the cardinal directions with gates that connect to roads leading in these directions. Furthermore, 25 March, the Feast of the Annunciation, was in the Middle Ages commonly identified with the vernal equinox. [20] [4], Fray Toribio de Motolinía, a Spanish friar who arrived to Mexico soon after the invasion, writes in his work Memoriales that the Aztec feast of Tlacaxipehualiztli "took place when the sun stood in the middle of [the Temple of] Huitzilopochtli, which was at the equinox". Con el paso del tiempo el Templo Mayor sufrió el terrible destino al que los propios mexicas habían condenado a muchas de las capitales indígenas: fue destruido a sangre y fuego por los conquistadores españoles. Templo Mayor. [4][5][7], The third temple was built between 1427 and 1440 during the reign of Itzcoatl. At this time, the stairway to the shrine of Tlaloc was defined by a pair of undulating serpents and in the middle of this shrine was a small altar defined by a pair of sculpted frogs. The Templo Mayor (Spanish for "[the] Greater Temple") was the main temple of the Aztec people in their capital city of Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City. Para los mexicas, el Templo Mayor ocupaba el centro del universo y por esa razón no podía ser cambiado de lugar. Almost all the interior walls of the House of the Eagles are decorated with beautiful paintings and contain long benches, which are also painted. It received 801,942 visitors in 2017. "[18] Matos Moctezuma supports his supposition by claiming that the temple acts as an embodiment of a living myth where "all sacred power is concentrated and where all the levels intersect." El recinto del Templo Mayor albergaba no sólo el templo doble dedicado a Tláloc y Huitzilopochtli, el cual puede ser admirado hoy en día. El recinto del Templo Mayor albergaba no sólo el templo doble dedicado a Tláloc y Huitzilopochtli, el cual puede ser admirado hoy en día. 27-feb-2020 - Explora el tablero de Javier Ramon "Templo mayor" en Pinterest. • Antonio Serrato-Combe: The Aztec Templo Mayor - A Visualization, The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City 2001, ISBN 0-87480-690-9 Templo Mayor. Etapa II (alrededor de 1390 d.C.). Huitzilopochtli was victorious, slaying and dismembering his sister. The museum has eight main exhibition halls, each dedicated to a different theme. They are salty, very crunchy, and taste slightly like Fritos. 4:02. Room 1 is dedicated to the goddesses Coatlicue and Coyolxauhqui, mother and sister to Huitzlipochtli, respectively. [5], From 1978 to 1982, specialists directed by archeologist Eduardo Matos Moctezuma worked on the project to excavate the Temple. The spire in the center of the adjacent image was devoted to Quetzalcoatl in his form as the wind god, Ehecatl. A ello se debe que cada vez que querían agrandarlo, se construía un nuevo edificio sobre el anterior conservando las mismas características fundamentales, es decir, dos capillas en la cúspide y escalinata doble en la fachada principal. Con la llegada de los españoles a Tenochtitlan, la enorme mayoría de los objetos de oro en circulación terminó en los crisoles. Templo Mayor. Etapas II A VII Templo Mayor. Gran templo en el centro ceremonial de Tenochtitlan, la capital del … Ver más ideas sobre Historia de mexico, Templo, México tenochtitlan. [24], Images of the gods Huehueteotl-Xiuhtecuhtli, together with Tlaloc, presided over most of the offerings found in the Templo Mayor. Essential elements of the old imperial center, including the Templo Mayor, were buried under similarly key features of the new city in what is now the historical downtown of the Mexico City. A small silver mask and a gold bell were found inside one urn, and second gold bell and two green stone beads were placed in the other. Tomo I Matos_Pie_Templo_1ed_2018_FSC_Tomo1_A.indd 5 09/05/2019 08:23:52 p. m. ... Templo Mayor, México D.F. Este era un conjunto palaciego que funcionaba como escuela para los hijos del estamento nobiliario, donde se preparaba a los futuros funcionarios del gobierno, a los supremos sacerdotes y a los grandes dirigentes de la milicia. Y, si bien las obras sólo consistían en ado­sar­le taludes y renovar escalinatas, el pueblo podía constatar el poder de su gobernante en turno y el engrandecimiento de su dios tribal, el victorioso dios-sol de la guerra. Las más recientes investigaciones arqueológicas llevadas a cabo en las ruinas del Templo Mayor edificio muestran por lo menos siete etapas constructivas, de las cuales sobresale aquella que se realizó durante el gobierno de Huitzilíhuitl, segundo tlatoani de Tenochtitlan. Next to this ball field was the "huey tzompanti" where the skulls of sacrifice victims were kept after being covered in stucco and decorated. A chacmool was uncovered as well. [5] The site is part of the Historic Center of Mexico City, which was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1987. Only a platform to the north and a section of paving in the courtyard on the south side can still be seen. Con la llegada de los españoles a Tenochtitlan, la enorme mayoría de los objetos de oro en circulación terminó en los crisoles. La colección arqueológica del Proyecto Templo Mayor. [4], Coordinates: 19°26′06″N 99°07′53″W / 19.43500°N 99.13139°W / 19.43500; -99.13139, Sacred Precinct and surrounding buildings, Museo de la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público, List of pre-columbian archaeological sites in Mexico City, "EL RECINTO CEREMONIAL Y EL TEMPLO MAYOR Evolución de la Gran Tenochtitlan", "Model of the ceremonial precinct of Mexico-Tenochtitlan", "The tasks of exploration and restoration of the sculptures", "The morphology and the orientation of the images", Templo Mayor entry on The Visual History Project, Colegio de San Ignacio de Loyola Vizcaínas, Convent of Jesús María and Our Lady of Mercy, Parish of Jesús María and Our Lady of Mercy, House of the First Print Shop in the Americas, Museum of Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público, Palace of the Inquisition (Museum of Mexican Medicine), Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo, now Mexico City (Museum of the Constitutions), Palace of the Counts of San Mateo de Valparaiso, House of the Count de la Torre Cosío y la Cortina, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Templo_Mayor&oldid=989126241, Buildings and structures demolished in the 16th century, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Director del Proyecto Templo Mayor (PTM) del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) desde 1991, ha dedicado su vida al estudio de la política, la religión y el arte de las sociedades prehispánicas del centro de México y a la historia de la arqueología en este país. Each stairway was defined by balustrades flanking the stairs terminating in menacing serpent heads at the base. El proceso de confección de la fi­gura, llevado a cabo anualmente, concluía con su vestido y ornamentación mediante tocados de plumas y textiles muy elabo­rados, y con la colocación de una máscara y un colgante de oro que daban su identidad a la efigie del dios solar. Este estaba acompañado de sus parientes más cercanos. La escasez de lluvia y el sacrificio de niños. The temple was called the Huēyi Teōcalli [we:ˈi teoːˈkali][1] in the Nahuatl language. Templo Mayor es la denominación en español de huey teocalli, el gran templo en la capital azteca de Tenochtitlan, fundada en el año 1325, que fue conquistada y destruída por los españoles en 1521.El poder colonial erigió sobre sus ruinas una nueva ciudad, por lo que durante muchos siglos el santuario principal de los aztecas quedó olvidado. Leopoldo Batres did some excavation work at the end of the 19th century under the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral because at the time, researchers thought the cathedral had been built over the ruins of the temple. En su breve recorrido por el Templo Mayor, recinto sagrado de los mexicas, el señor de Huexotzingo seguramente se estremeció al contemplar, muy cerca del templo del Sol naciente, el Huey Tzompantli. This room contains various images of the god usually worked in green or volcanic stone or in ceramic. Her body was then thrown to the bottom of the hill. These locations served as a place for the reenactment of the mythical conflict. Fue descubierto en 1978, […] México: INAH. Nos referimos al sitio arqueológico del Templo Mayor. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México Conoce México, sus tradiciones y costumbres, pueblos mágicos, zonas arqueológicas, playas y hasta la comida mexicana. Sitio oficial del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. It is a large L-shaped room with staircases decorated with sculptures of eagle heads. Objects associated with human sacrifice are the "face blades" or knives decorated with eyes and teeth, as well as skull masks. The entire building was originally covered with stucco and polychrome paint. 27-feb-2020 - Explora el tablero de Javier Ramon "Templo mayor" en Pinterest. At the end of the festival, the image was broken apart and shared among the populace to be eaten. Universes in Universe. These rulers, and others, each employed the resources and labour given in tribute by neighbouring states in order to build a more impressive monument than their predecessors.The location was chosen with purpose a… [4] Cortés, who had ordered the destruction of the existing capital, had a Mediterranean-style city built on the site. El Templo Mayor resumen la dualidad vida-muerte La historia del Templo Mayor es la dualidad de la vida y la muerte, la de los dioses. Sin lugar a dudas, Moctezuma se deleitó observando los rostros de sus invitados. Once the implement was covered with blood, it was inserted in straw balls called Zacatapayoli. Según la tradición, el Templo Mayor se construyó justo en el sitio donde los peregrinos de Aztlán encontraron el sagrado nopal que crecía en una piedra, y sobre el cual se posaba un águila con las alas extendidas al sol, devorando una serpiente. Los conquistadores españoles sólo conocieron la última etapa constructiva del Templo Mayor, efectuada durante el reinado de Moctezuma Xocoyotzin, y se admiraron de la majes­tuo­sidad y gran altura que poseía ya el sagrado edificio. El Templo Mayor y el Recinto del Templo Mayor eran el centro de la vida religiosa mexica y uno de los edificios ceremoniales más famosos de su época, ubicado en lo que hoy es el centro de la Ciudad de México. [11], The pyramid was composed of four sloped terraces with a passage between each level, topped by a great platform that measured approximately 80 by 100 meters (262 by 328 feet). El objetivo del Templo Mayor. Therefore, digging down through this temple takes us back in time. In excavations at the Templo Mayor, different types of offerings have been found and have been grouped by researchers in terms of Time (the period in which the offering was deposited); Space (the location of the offering within the structure); Container (type and dimensions of the receptacle containing the objects); internal distribution (placement of objects within the offering) and value of the items. Leonardo López Luján. However, the discovery did not generate great public interest in excavating further, because the zone was an upper-class residential area. Due to the god's serpentine nature, the temple had a circular base instead of a rectangular one. Su objetivo principal era dar protección y al destinar tierras a los mexicanos, éstos tendrían que ayudar como mercenarios en las guerras de expansión de los tepanecas de Azcapotzalco, además de pagar un tributo en diversos productos. En 1933, el arquitecto Emilio Cuevas llevó a cabo excavaciones frente a los restos del Templo Mayor encontrados por don Manuel Gamio, a un costado de la Catedral. Etapas II A VII Templo Mayor. Si deseas consultar otras entradas asociadas a la visita al Museo del Templo Mayor haz clic en la etiqueta Guía al Templo Mayor en la barra inferior. 3 Páginas • 2903 Visualizaciones. The orientation of stage II, the earliest of the archaeologically attested construction phases, is different from that adopted by stage III and preserved in all subsequent stages. Ese mismo año, el Museo del Templo Mayor abría sus puertas como guardián de esos valiosos bienes. Among the most important buildings were the ballcourt, the Calmecac (area for priests), and the temples dedicated to Quetzalcoatl, Tezcatlipoca and the sun. El Templo Mayor, arquitectura prehispánica en la Ciudad de México, Si tienes la oportunidad de quedarte un tiempo en la colonia Condesa, con fines vacacionales, tal vez desees conocer uno de los lugares mas valiosos para comprender la historia antigua de la Ciudad de México. [9], The excavated site consists of two parts: the temple itself, exposed and labeled to show its various stages of development, along with some other associated buildings, and the museum, built to house the smaller and more fragile objects. This room contains various images of him as well as offerings. Very little of this layer remains because of the destruction the Spaniards wrought when they invaded the city. Adjoining this palace is the temple for these warriors—also known as the Red Temple. Mientras tanto, su dignatario se detenía unos instantes frente al templo piramidal dedicado a Tezcatlipoca, la temible deidad guerrera, donde justo al pie de su escalinata se ubicaba un monumento de forma cilíndrica, mandado tallar en tiempos de Moctezuma Ilhuicamina. Inside of him were bags containing jade, bones and amulets to give life to the god. Gran templo en el centro ceremonial de Tenochtitlan, la capital del reino de los aztecas. Precisamente, durante las fiestas del mes indígena de Panquetzaliztli, dedicado al ceremonial de Huitzilopochtli, el clímax de la fiesta consistía en la repartición del cuerpo de amaranto, miel y sangre entre todo el pueblo. En los lados norte y sur del Templo Mayor los arqueólogos han encontrado evidencias de conjuntos palaciegos decorados con la representación de procesiones de guerreros y otros elementos de tradición tolteca. The Eagle Warriors were a privileged class who were dedicated to the god Huitzilopochtli, and dressed to look like eagles. [9], Aztec temples were typically expanded by building over prior ones, using the bulk of the former as a base for the latter, as later rulers sought to expand the temple to reflect the growing greatness of the city of Tenochtitlan. 15-oct-2019 - Explora el tablero de Ana Maria "Templo mayor mexico" en Pinterest. The Temple of Quetzalcoatl was located to the west of the Templo Mayor. This palace specifically imitates much of the style of the Burnt Palace, located in the ruins of Tula. De esa etapa se conservan los muros de los adoratorios, el téchcatl o piedra sagrada de los sacrificios y una escultura del Chac-Mool. [3][4], The Calmecac was a residence hall for priests and a school for future priests, administrators and politicians, where they studied theology, literature, history and astronomy. [10] According to these records, the first pyramid was built with earth and perishable wood, which may not have survived to the present time. This page was last edited on 17 November 2020, at 05:15. pología e Historia, el Museo del Templo Mayor y el Museo Nacional de las Intervenciones; así como de la Universidad Nacional Autó - noma de México, de la Universidad Prefectural de Aichi, en Japón, y del aviario El Nido. In 1948, Hugo Moedano and Elma Estrada Balmori excavated a platform containing serpent heads and offerings. 100 años del templo mayor: historia de un descubrimiento. 10 - 32. During excavations, more than 7,000 objects were found, mostly offerings including effigies, clay pots in the image of Tlaloc, skeletons of turtles, frogs, crocodiles, and fish; snail shells, coral, some gold, alabaster, Mixtec figurines, ceramic urns from Veracruz, masks from what is now Guerrero state, copper rattles, and decorated skulls and knives of obsidian and flint. Related to Room 6, Room 7 contains exhibits of the agricultural technology of the time, especially in the growing of corn and the construction of chinampas, the so-called "floating gardens". Sala 4 is dedicated to the god Huitzilopochtli. Museo del Templo Mayor: El museo del Templo Mayor contiene ocho salas de exhibición que narran la historia del sitio arqueológico. En las crónicas antiguas se relata la visita que hiciera al recinto sagrado de México-Tenochtitlan, por invitación misma del tlatoani tenochca, un señor del pueblo enemigo de Huexotzinco. 3 Páginas • 1096 Visualizaciones. [6], After the destruction of Tenochtitlan, the Templo Mayor, like most of the rest of the city, was taken apart and the area redeveloped by new structures of the Spanish colonial city. All seven stages of the Templo Mayor, except the first, have been excavated and assigned to the reigns of the emperors who were responsible for them. This area dates back to the fourth stage of the temple, around 1469. [5][7], The fifth temple (1481–1486) is dated during the short reign of Tizoc. El recinto ceremonial de edificios monumentales de Tenochtitlan estaba dominado por el Templo Mayor, una enorme pirámide doble dedicada tanto a la deidad patronal azteca Huitzilopochtli como al dios de la tormenta Tláloc.. Las excavaciones arqueológicas en la base del templo demuestran que fue construido como una recreación simbólica del nacimiento de Huitzilopochtli.
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