Indeed, Pouokam (2011) reports that according to the fish smokers at his study site “the red mangroves are finished and all gone.” Njifonjou (2009) cited in Pouokam (2011) argues that no more than half of mangrove wood consumption is related to fish smoking activities. The Pearson r linear correlation test was performed to determine the degree of correlation between the amount of wood used and the quantity of fish smoked. For the same amount (160 kg) and species of fish, a cinderblock oven consumes 122 kg of wood at a cost of 4€, with a smoking time of 5 and a traditional oven consumes 365 kg of wood costing 9€ with a smoking time of around 21 hr. Figure 2. Thus, some fish smokers used alternative energy sources (Figure 5), as well as firewood, in order to improve physical aspects of the fish, most usually the color. uuid:41068db8-7c95-45a4-b75c-e44a9a443952 This is not the case in all countries. In the Sundarbans (India, Bangladesh), mangrove firewood is harvested on a commercial basis and sold in cities. Your trusted wood smoking friend Gerry is here to help you out with finding the right wood for the job! These differences are due to the fact that in Pouokam’s (2011) study site, the mangrove forest stocks are almost exhausted, and this is putting pressure on other species such as forest trees and fruit trees. The smoking time is also shorter than with a traditional oven, and working conditions (smoke, heat, and fumes) are better. Thus, type 1 error levels (i.e., reject the null hypothesis when true) are not guaranteed. Smoker or charcoal grill. This has put severe pressure on mangrove forests, leading to steady deforestation. It is now widely recognized, however, that conservation legislation is of fundamental importance to successful mangrove management systems (Van Lavieren et al., 2012 cited in Z. N. Feka, 2015). It has shown that wood plays a major role in the energy supply of the rural population. The main reason was the capacity of the species to provide heat energy, followed by the ability of the species to color the fish attractively (Figure 4) and also to be in constant supply without any shortages. H��Wَ��}�W�CH��fI�� �##�$h%~��YZ. Primary school was the highest education level for most respondents (42.4%), 26% had secondary level. Assuming that a person who has not had any schooling is illiterate, the illiteracy rate among respondents was 31.6%. They sometimes spend up to 400€ per month on wood and are mainly Ghanaian (47%) and Nigerian (30%). You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. The initiative stops the deforestation of mangrove wood as the women now use non-polluting solar driers to dry and smoke the fish. 73 likes. Figure 9. Creation of a high spatio‐temporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st century (CGMFC‐21), Biology and distribution of mangrove crabs in the Wouri River Estuary, Douala, Cameroon, Evaluation de la qualité microbiologique des poissons Etmalosz fimbriata et Sardinella aurita fumés traditionnellement [Assessment of the microbiological quality of Etmalosz fimbriata and Sardinella aurita fish traditionally smoked], The loss of species: Mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern. Alternative energy. The geographical coordinates of the locality are 4° 20′ to 4° 50′ N latitude and 8° 30′ to 9° 00′ E longitude (Din, 2001). This gap is due to the fact that Azobe is not as widespread in the south-west region of Cameroon as it is in the southern region and also that red mangrove wood is still available, unlike in Kribi. %���� In Cameroon, mangrove forests — made up of salt-tolerant trees and shrubs found between small streams and the sea — are in danger of becoming extinct because of the tendency of women to harvest them for smoking fish. Table 2 shows the different alternative sources of energy used. Remember that tasty smoke comes from wood. Some of these plants include mangrove, poisonous walnut, sassafras, oleander, yew, tambootie, and laburnun. In addition to the sale of smoked fish, 8.6% of fish smokers also sell fresh fish. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. Thus, smoking is highly dependent on mangrove forests (Ajonina, 2008; Ajonina, 2001). Most respondents said they had been smoking fish since they were young and that they had inherited work spaces, equipment, and necessary skills from their mothers. The majority of fish smokers were from Cameroon (47.3%), followed by Ghana (23.45%), Nigeria (22.63%), and Benin (6.6%). As most rural areas do not have electricity, local people use smoking as a way to preserve fish. It was usually cut by chainsaws (99.17%) and then transported mainly by canoes (97%). Fish smokers acquired firewood in several ways. A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. Quality Charcoal & Smoking Supplies For Sale We stock quality charcoal ranging from Australian Made Mallee Root and Redgum to Imported Mangrove. In Down Beach, red mangrove wood was sold by line (15 pieces of wood—see Figure 6) at a cost of 16€, or by car load (a Dyna truck), which comprises 12 lines and a costs 192€. Our study focused on fish smoking activities in Ndian and Fako, in the southwest region of Cameroon. The Best Charcoal for Barbecue and Grilling. (a) Plantain and cassava peel. Potential Impact of Fish Smoking on Mangrove Resources in Southwest Cameroon, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage, Ngo-Massou, Essomè-Koum, Kottè-Mapoko, & Din, 2014, http://www.journalducameroun.com/article.php?aid=12990, https://infodoc.agroparistech.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=102671, https://www.pourlascience.fr/sd/environnement/du-carbone-sous-les-mangroves-10929.php. (c) Circular oven. This study found that 99.59% of respondents use traditional ovens. Fishing camps have been widely established throughout them, and mangrove wood is harvested for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. They are closely followed by smokers from Cameroon and Nigeria. The wood is considered very eco-friendly, as some Mango plantations harvest the trees for lumber after they have completed their useful fruit-bearing lifespan. Whether in quantity and cost of wood, or in smoking time, a traditional oven uses twice as much as a cinderblock oven. When they were used, it was usually only branches which were harvested. Our study found that all the fish smokers were women from Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, and Benin. Always meant to give the mangrove a go but never got round to it - anyone tried it ? Figure 10. The study found that 60.5% of fish smokers had at least 10 years of experience in smoking. However, fish smokers are not always able to use the oven of their preference. Because of population pressure, this artisanal technique of preservation consumes greater quantities of mangrove wood each year and is having a progressively detrimental impact on mangrove forest sustainability. (a) Suspended iron banda. Among the first choice, 71% used mangrove wood (Rhizophora racemosa) and 20% Azobe (Lophira alata). We hope that this study will help underscore the alarming rate of mangrove depletion and thus encourage decision makers to implement conservation strategies for the sustainable management of mangrove forests through measures that also take into account the socioeconomic conditions of local populations. Forests are clearly under great pressure. Direct observations were made of the conditions to which fish smokers were exposed (smoke, heat, flames). Thus, the loss of mangroves will affect the entire planet not only because it will lead to a loss of biodiversity but also because it will accelerate climate change (PFBC, 2006). Lumber, both new and used, is best to avoid when choosing wood to smoke. Figure 8. However, if your charcoal is smoking, don’t assume that the smoke coming from it is just as good as smoke from wood. The conservation of mangrove ecosystems is thus becoming an increasingly urgent topic (Tiéga & Ouédraogo, 2012). Figure 5. On average, each supports a family of 3 to 6 people. The action of the shells moving together excavates a hole through the wood, and the wood shavings accumulate in the stomach which becomes a distended, worm-like bag. Sustainable management of mangrove forests in West Africa: A new policy perspective? Fish smoking is one of the key activities impacting on the disappearance of characteristic mangrove species. Get your smoke from wood – This may seem obvious. 4 0 obj Rubber tree wood was the most used second choice species. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. A suspended wooden banda may last only 5 months, although, on average, traditional oven lasts about 6 years compared to 13 years for a cinderblock oven. Several species of mangroves, particularly Red Mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa), are used for fish smoking. Fuel wood for fish smoking is the main driver behind the loss of Cameroon's mangrove, with deforestation rates of 8.28% per year (Feka, 2005, Ajonina et al., 2008, Alongi, 2008, Feka and Manzano, 2008, Feka et al., 2009, Feka and Ajonina, 2011). (, Polidoro, B. To introduce regulations, it is first necessary for legislation to be passed to protect mangrove forests. Women who live in villages in the mangrove forests also use red mangrove for their own domestic needs. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. During the peak smoking period, large-scale fish smokers spend an average of 200€ per month on purchasing wood. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. They are formed of river alluvium which is relatively rich in organic matter (Tadjoung & Effala, 2008). Ekomy, Bruneau, Mbega, and Aregba (2013), in their study of new concepts in the artisanal drying and smoking of food in Gabon, found that traditional longitudinal ovens have a ratio of 4.17 with a smoking time of 72 hr. Our study found that suspended ovens have a ratio (wood quantity in kg/fish quantity in kg) of 2.3 over 53 hr of smoking. Population pressure also causes mangrove destruction in unprotected areas, especially around settlements, villages, and towns where poverty and land issues force people to move onto any open land they can (ENVI-REP Cameroun, 2010). Fish smokers have well-defined requirements for their activities. The climate is characterized by a brief dry season and a rainy season that last over nine months. Wood chips. This is supported by Ngoma (2005) who found that the smoking time of a cinderblock oven is 5 to 12 hr. Wanda_Ra . Population growth has greatly increased the pressure on these resources in recent years. US $580.00-$620 .00 / Metric Ton ... on Alibaba.com, of which charcoal accounts for 76%, decorations & ornaments accounts for 5%. The indigenous people at the study sites belong to the Kory, Isangele, Oroko, and Balong tributes (Fomete & Tchanou, 1998). describe the socioeconomic lives of those involved in fish smoking; identify the sources of energy, wood species, wood cost, and alternative fuels used; determine the yields of different oven types and the amount of fuel they require. This discrepancy with our study may be due to the fact that our sample was governed by the relationship between government (IRAD, MINEPIA) and the fish smokers who participated in our study. (2014) suggest that this demand is because of taste of smoked fish. Fish and wood species, smoking time, wood purchase, and sales costs were also recorded. Angoni et al. Read my article on soaking wood. However, and perhaps most significantly, it is also due to the fact that the fish smokers surveyed by Djessouho (2015) used very small circular ovens, unlike the fish smokers in our study, the majority of whom used big suspended ovens. The study site is a coastal area, where there are many elongated banks of dry land. Mangroves are known to sequester much more carbon than continental forests (Cordonnier, 2011). (2014) the sector is characterized by high levels of illiteracy 85%, 89%, and 95%, respectively. Indeed, there is a significant difference (F = 17.348, df = 243, p = .00012) between wood consumption in the nine communities. These figures show that we must act quickly to avoid the irreversible degradation of this fragile ecosystem that plays such an important role in … As it cannot be prohibited, strategies need urgently to be introduced to regulate mangrove wood consumption. However, once you learn about the different types of wood for smoking meat, you will find those great few choices that will suit your personal tastes in no time. In this Florida Keys fishing video, join us for a day of flats fishing in the lower keys on our flats boat. This has been a common method for preserving meat and fish for millennia in many parts of the world (Kone, 2001). The Implications of Wood Exploitation for Fish Smoking on Mangrove Ecosystem Conservation in th... Mongabay.com Scientific Journal, Tropical Conservation Science, Reaches its Second Year of Existence, Angoni, H., Tatchim, A. P., Nkonmeneck, B. This difference could be due to the fact that the majority of fishermen in Cameroon are foreigners, unlike in Senegal, where the locals dominate the sector. N. Z. Feka, Chuyong, and Ajonina (2009) found that the smoking time of a cinderblock oven is 30% less than a traditional oven. In their study on fish smoking in the same region as ours, N. Z. Feka and Manzano (2008) found that 62% of wood used for fish smoking is mangrove wood. Besides mangrove forests, this study revealed that 35% of wood comes from continental forests and 3% from home gardens. Those who said the forests were becoming depleted supported their opinion by saying that the distance between where the wood is cut and where it is sold is increasing all the time. Our research was authorized by the head of the IRAD, Limbe Batoke, and by the Fako Divisional Delegate of the MINEPIA. This questionnaire had several components. smoke for making babies strong (Belyuen) axe handles and digging sticks (Belyuen) Aegialitis annulata ... An important bivalve which is found in dead and decaying mangrove wood is called "mangrove worm", Teredo spp. endobj This use of mangroves is often of great importance. In Cameroon, mangrove forests cover approximately 250,000 hectares and are among the most extensive stands in Africa (Angoni et al., 2015). A few (17%) are Cameroonian. Lumber Scraps. Smoker box (optional) Small aluminum pan. In fact, many local ordinances forbid harvesting it. A wide variety of mangrove wood options are available to you, There are 524 suppliers who sells mangrove wood on Alibaba.com, mainly located in Asia. A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. During this first trip, nine fishing communities were identified (Figure 1) and invited to take part in the study. The overexploitation of mangroves also threatens the sustainability of fish smoking activities. Firewood origin according to respondents. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. However, interventions are necessary in order for fish smokers to become aware of the benefits of these improved cinderblock ovens. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. In just 10 years, national territory mangrove forests in Cameroon have decreased from 250,000 hectares to 134,400 hectares (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2007; Hamilton & Casey, 2016). The majority of fish smokers (68%) preferred traditional ovens to the new cinderblock oven because they have a large capacity and are known to be durable. The amount of wood used was not significantly affected by a fish smoker’s experience (F = .728, df = 242, p = .865) in any community. Photo by Helen Scales. Some only purchased it, and others, in addition to purchasing it, also collected their own wood. This study found that there is a strong correlation between the amount of wood burnt and the type of oven used. Nevertheless, the study shows that cinderblock ovens are categorically more economical than traditional ovens. For the same smoking time, the cinderblock oven which has a capacity of 160 kg of fish per smoking session can smoke approximately 2,750 kg of fish with 780 kg of wood. Wet wood makes bad smoke. These figures are supported by Chesnes (2009) in his study on the implementation of a Clean Development Mechanism project for the improvement of fish smoking ovens in the Douala-Edea reserve, who found it takes 3 to 4 days to smoke fish in a traditional oven. Three statistical tests were performed using R software. Can't comment on the bottlebrush but I've got a US book here that says the best 2 woods to use when smoking are hickory and mangrove (!) We also found that fish smoking processes are not random. It also cools the fire. Alternative fuels that could reduce wood consumption are rarely used as fuel; they are used to improve the physicochemical properties of fish for better sales. Wood is generally the preferred fuel for rural people because it is easily available, dispersed throughout the rural habitat, and can usually be obtained without major costs. Indeed, there was no significant difference (F = 1.761, df = 242, p = .138) between wood quantities used and respondents’ age groups. The quantity of wood consumed is governed not only by the amount of fish requiring smoking but also by the type of oven used. The surveys comprised semistructured interviews based on a questionnaire which were designed with help of the IRAD team. We found that cinderblock ovens have a smoking time of 5 hr. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. NB: It takes 15 pieces like the one in Figure 6 to form a line. Furthermore, the resulting product is better and less carcinogenic, and therefore could be more valuable. A wide variety of mangrove wood options are available to you, such as hard wood, soft wood, and coconut shell. Villagers like mangrove wood for limekilns because it’s dense and burns hot enough to fully cook the shells into lime. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (. Some were better than others and each, according to our respondents, had its advantages and disadvantages. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Seventy-four percent of respondents said that the mangrove forests were depleted, 20% said they did not know and 6% said this was not the case. Mangrove wood is still the main resource used for fish smoking in areas of Cameroon other than Kribi (Angoni et al., 2015). On the other hand, a traditional oven has a shorter life span. Studies in Benin, Togo, and Ivory coast (Abotchi, 2010; Chabi et al., 2014; Oulaï et al., 2007) have found, like us, that all fish smokers are women. Chabi et al. I am also grateful to Pr. Fishing and hunting are the main human activities. I would also like to thank the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), Limbe-batoke station, for enabling access to the research area, and for providing personnel, equipment, much good work, and knowledge. Figure 7. They are Orange trees, Palm trees, Ilomba, Paduk, Taiga wood, Tali, plum trees, apple trees, Kolumba, and Zingana. NB: Other refers to wood species very rarely used (species that have been cited less than 5 times in total). TSI Evaristus, senior lecturer at the Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences and Dr. NGUEGUIM Jules, Head of station IRAD Limbe-Batoke, for their supervision of this work and their creative thinking and hard work during the establishment phase of the project. 10 Post Reply. Promotional Price Vietnam 100% Wood Charcoal from Mangrove for Somalia Smoking Hookah Bars . Several oven types were used in the study sites, but 99.6% of fish smokers used a traditional oven (banda). However, Baryeh et al., cited in Oulaï et al. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? Sharing links are not available for this article. The strong, red mangrove wood gives fish a golden look and pungent smoky taste. While sometimes used as bait, mullet make an excellent choice for smoking or frying. Mangrove Woods, Port Charlotte, Florida. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. In each community, GPS coordinates were recorded using the GPS receiver (GPS GARMIN MAP 64). This study also showed that 47% of wood used by fish smokers comes from mangrove forests. For fish it is recommended to use mild woods like apple, cherry or alder to prevent overpowering the flavor of the meat. A mangrove-wood kiln holds seashells that will be baked into valuable lime. The wildlife is dominated by vertebrate such as fish, birds, and reptiles, but there are also invertebrates such as crabs and molluscs (Ngo-Massou, Essomè-Koum, Kottè-Mapoko, & Din, 2014). There is still virtually no infrastructure and access is by canoe. This dependence on red mangrove wood is due to its capacity to produce a great amount of heat energy (Ajonina & Usongo, 2001). Different Oven Type Performance. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses. Mango was the most used third choice species (used by 15% of all respondents), and fruit trees were occasionally used. The mangroves are currently valued for fuel wood use at 4146 Ghanaian cedis (US$2765) per ha within the Efasou community. Fifteen percent of respondents did not use any alternative sources of energy saying that wood was sufficient for their physicochemical requirements. Figure 3 shows wood utilization intensity in our study sites. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Wood purchases occurred weekly, monthly, and sometimes even annually, as sometimes the peak smoking period is only 1 or 2 months. Can be crafted into birch planks or burned for charcoal. Suspended ovens have a large capacity (can take 1,500 kg) for fish and consume 500 kg to 3,360 kg of wood with a smoking time ranging from 48 to 96 hr (2–4 days). It has a harder, more dense wood which means it burns hotter and longer when compared to other charcoal types.
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